In the near future, with more distributed generators connected and new demands arising from the electrification of heat and transport in the distribution networks, infrastructure will become ever more stressed. However, building costly new circuits to accommodate generation and demand growth is time-consuming and environmentally unfriendly. Therefore, active network management (ANM) has been promoted in many countries, aiming to relieve network pressure. Previous research in ANM was focused on distribution areas with significant renewable penetration, where ANM reduced network pressure through significantly enhanced generation curtailment strategies rather than adopting traditional asset investment. This paper proposes the use of electric vehicles (EVs) as responsive demand to complement network stress relief that was purely based on generation curtailment. It is achieved by allowing EVs to absorb excessive renewable generation when they cause network pressure, and it thus can provide additional measures to generation curtailment strategies. The approach is illustrated on a practical extra-high voltage distribution system. The analyses clearly demonstrate the combined management of demand and generation is superior to previous sole generation management. The combined management strategy can achieve 7.9% improvement in utilization of renewable energy, and subsequently increase the net investment profit by £566 k.
Zhou, L., Li, F., Gu, C., Hu, Z., & Le Blond, S. (2013). Cost/Benefit Assessment of a Smart Distribution System With Intelligent Electric Vehicle Charging. IEEE Transactions on Smart Grids, 5(2), 839-847. https://doi.org/10.1109/TSG.2013.2282707