This systematic review assessed coping and adjustment in caregivers of all ages to provide a synthesis of existing literature in the context of methodological approaches and underlying theory. Four databases were searched. Reference lists, citations and experts were consulted. In total, 27 studies (13 quantitative and 14 qualitative) were included. Coping factors associated with adjustment (problem- versus emotion-focussed coping and cognitive strategies) and psychosocial factors associated with physiological adjustment (trait anxiety, coping style and social support) were identified. Results raised methodological issues. Future research requires physiological adjustment measures and longitudinal assessment of the long-term impact of childhood caregiving. Findings inform future caregiver research and interventions.