Controlled electrodeposition of brookite TiO2 for photoelectroanalysis at printed carbon electrodes

José L. Bott-Neto, Thiago S. Martins, Osvaldo N. Oliveira, Frank Marken

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (SciVal)


TiO2-based photoelectrochemical (PEC) (bio)sensors have high photoactivity, chemical stability, and biocompatibility. However, their performance depends on multiple factors, including deposition method, morphology, and interaction with the target analyte. Herein, we describe a PEC platform based on TiO2 electrodeposition directly onto printed carbon electrodes (without heat treatment), designed for point-of-care (POC) applications. Brookite TiO2 nanocrystals were synthesized via electrodeposition in an acidic solution containing TiCl3, and parameters such as pH and temperature were optimized to improve photoelectrocatalytic activity. Photoelectrooxidation of ascorbic acid (AA) with electrodes prepared under optimal conditions (pH 2.5, 80 °C) had 10.5 times higher photocurrents than electrodes modified with commercial TiO2 nanoparticles via drop casting. The resulting sensor was highly sensitive and selective for AA, with a linear range from 10 to 1000 µM and a limit of detection of 3.25 µM (S/N = 3). Since brookite TiO2 electrodeposition does not require thermal treatment, printed carbon electrodes on polymer substrates can be used in producing miniaturized devices for sensitive, selective PEC (bio)sensors.

Original languageEnglish
Article number158316
JournalApplied Surface Science
Early online date25 Aug 2023
Publication statusPublished - 15 Dec 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors are grateful for the financial support from the Brazilian agencies: São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP, grants 2018/22214-6 , 2019/13514-9 , 2022/00243-0 and 2022/03758-0 ).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 The Author(s)


  • Brookite TiO
  • Electrodeposition
  • Photoelectrochemical sensing
  • Printed carbon electrodes
  • Vitamin C

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Surfaces and Interfaces
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films


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