Connected or disconnected? Exploring the relationship between citizenship norms and other citizenship attitudes in young people1

Cristóbal Villalobos, Diego Carrasco, Catalina Miranda, María Jesús Morel, Ernesto Treviño, Andrés Sandoval-Hernández

Research output: Chapter or section in a book/report/conference proceedingChapter or section


Citizenship is a complex, multidimensional concept that comprises a broad set of beliefs, values, skills, knowledge, actions, and dispositions. Due to this multiplicity, the relationships between the components of citizenship are not necessarily linear or causal. Using the largest and most recent comparative study on youth citizenship, the 2016 International Civic and Citizenship Education Study, this chapter analyzes the relationship between civic norms and four attitudes: multiculturalism, gender equality, patriotism, and respect for democracy. To differentiate between different types of civic norms, five profiles of eighth-grade students are discussed: (1) comprehensive (students who express that all civic norms are important; (2) duty-based (students who support traditional norms, like obeying the law or respecting authorities); (3) socially engaged (students who support norms oriented toward helping the community and protecting the environment and human rights); (4) monitorial (students who value non-conventional forms of political participation); and (5) anomic (those with the lowest endorsement in all citizenship norms). General trends show that the profiles of civic norms endorsement vary significantly between countries, suggesting that citizenship norms are constructed contextually. There is continued relevance in exploring the contradictory relationship between patriotism and multiculturalism, or gender equality with respect to other civic attitudes.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationContestations of Citizenship, Education, and Democracy in an Era of Global Change
Subtitle of host publicationChildren and Youth in Diverse International Contexts
PublisherTaylor and Francis
Number of pages22
ISBN (Electronic)9781000787177
ISBN (Print)9781032055121
Publication statusPublished - 11 Oct 2022

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Sciences(all)


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