Conceptualization and measurement of fan engagement: Empirical evidence from a professional sport context

Masayuki Yoshida, Brian Gordon, Makoto Nakazawa, Rui Biscaia

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

169 Citations (SciVal)


In the sport management literature, limited attention has been devoted to the conceptualization and measurement of fan engagement. Two quantitative studies were completed to validate the proposed fan-engagement scale composed of three defining elements (management cooperation, prosocial behavior, and performance tolerance). The results from Study 1 provide evidence of convergent and discriminant validity for the threefactor model of fan engagement. In Study 2, we assess nomological validity by examining the antecedents and consequences of fan engagement and found that team identification and basking in reflected glory played a particularly important role in increasing the three dimensions of fan engagement. Furthermore, the results indicate that performance tolerance has a positive effect on purchase intention. These findings highlight the importance of the sequential relationships between team identification, performance tolerance, and purchase intention.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)399-417
Number of pages19
JournalJournal of Sport Management
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2014


  • fan engagement
  • customer engagement
  • nontransactional behavior
  • extra-role behavior
  • cooperation
  • prosocial behavior


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