Concentric Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances (CTIDs) Triggered by the 2022 Tonga Volcanic Eruption

Lei Liu, Y. Jade Morton, Pin Hsuan Cheng, Angel Amores, Corwin J. Wright, Lars Hoffmann

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This paper investigates concentric traveling ionospheric disturbances (CTIDs) associated with the Tonga volcanic eruption. Results show that: (a) two types of CTIDs (CTID #1 and CTID #2) were identified that traveled radially from Tonga at the speed of 610–880 m/s (acoustic-mode) and 300–380 m/s (Lamb-mode), respectively. CTID #1 reached 3,800 and 5,000 km away from the eruption location toward the directions of New Zealand and Australia, respectively. CTID #2 propagated persistently for ∼9 hr over New Zealand and Australia. (b) The CTID #2 wavefront changed after 08:35 UT over New Zealand, possibly due to a combination of factors including the anisotropic propagation of CTID #2, the regional geomagnetic declination, and westward-moving Lamb waves. (c) Topside total electron content (TEC) enhancement with a magnitude over two TECu was observed from COSMIC-2 measurements. The enhancement agrees with CTID #1 peak from nearby ground-based TEC observations and could be related to the upward propagation of the F layer’s CTID #1 signatures.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere2022JA030656
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics
Issue number2
Early online date13 Feb 2023
Publication statusPublished - 28 Feb 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This project is sponsored by NASA Grant 80NSSC21K1156. C. J. Wright is supported by a Royal Society University Research Fellowship (UF160545 and URF\R\221023) and NERC Grant NE/S00985X/1. The authors are grateful for the constructive comments provided by the anonymous reviewers and for the useful discussion with Dr Ercha Aa and Dr Weijia Zhan in revising the manuscript.

Data Availability Statement
The GNSS data used in this study are available from University NAVSTAR Consortium (UNAVCO;, Crustal Dynamics Data Information System (CDDIS;, New Zealand GeoNet (, and Australia GNSS networks (, respectively. The constellation observing system for meteorology, ionosphere, and climate (COSMIC)-2 podTEC measurements are available from The geostationary operational environmental satellite (GOES)-17 infrared radiance data are from∼u0553130/Brian_Blaylock/cgi-bin/goes16_download.cgi. The Advanced Infrared Sounder (AIRS) aboard NASA’s Aqua satellite brightness temperature perturbation data are from

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science


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