Complex tsunami hazards in eastern Indonesia from seismic and non-seismic sources: Deterministic modelling based on historical and modern data

Ignatius R. Pranantyo, Mohammad Heidarzadeh, Phil R. Cummins

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18 Citations (SciVal)


Eastern Indonesia is one of the world’s most complex regions in terms of tsunami hazards, as it accommodates numerous seismic and non-seismic tsunami sources with a history of deadly tsunamis. This study is an effort to enhance tsunami hazard knowledge in eastern Indonesia where limited data and analyses exist. We provide a brief understanding of eastern Indonesia’s tsunami hazards by modelling selected deterministic tsunami scenarios from tectonic, submarine mass failure (SMF), and volcanic sources. To our knowledge, this is the first time that tsunami hazards modelling from such diverse sources in Indonesia has been performed. Our methodology is a deterministic tsunami hazard analysis considering credible tsunami sources from historical and contemporary data, modelling them using state-of-the-art simulation tools. We modelled two Mw7.8 tsunamigenic earthquake scenarios on the Flores back-arc thrust, one rupturing the basal fault (FBT-BF) and the other rupturing the splay fault (FBT-SF), showing that the two scenarios produce maximum tsunami amplitudes of ∼ 5.3 m and ∼ 4.2 m, respectively, which are comparable to the deadly 1992 Flores tsunami. We modelled potential SMF-generated tsunamis in the Makassar Strait with SMF volumes of 5 km 3 and 225 km 3 which yielded maximum tsunami heights of ∼ 1.1 m and ∼ 4.3 m along the eastern coast of Kalimantan Island and ∼ 2.9 m and ∼ 11.1 m along the west shore of Sulawesi Island, respectively. The 1871 Ruang volcanic tsunami is studied through existing historical documents and a source model is proposed comprising a flank collapse with volume of 0.10km3. Such a source model successfully reproduced the 25 m runup reported in a historical account.

Original languageEnglish
Article number20
Number of pages16
JournalGeoscience Letters
Early online date6 May 2021
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the Royal Society, UK (Grant Number CHL\R1\180173).

Funding Information:
Figures were prepared using Quantum GIS ( ), the Generic Mapping Tools 6 (Wessel et al. , ), Matplotlib 3.2.1 and Cartopy 0.18 libraries. We used the Scientific colour map to prepare the figures to prevent visual distortion of the data and exclusion of readers with colour-vision deficiencies (Crameri et al. ) that is freely available on (last accessed on 18 February 2021). The high-resolution digital elevation model around Flores Island was provided by the Australia-Indonesia Facility for Disaster Reduction (AIFDR), which was supported by the Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade’s Australian Aid program. We gratefully acknowledge constructive review comments from the Editor (Dr Anawat Suppasri) and two anonymous reviewers.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021, The Author(s).


  • Earthquake
  • Eastern Indonesia
  • Numerical simulations
  • Submarine mass failure
  • Tsunami
  • Volcano

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Earth and Planetary Sciences(all)


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