Comparison of vortical structures induced by arteriovenous grafts using vector Doppler ultrasound

Efstratios Kokkalis, Andrew N Cookson, Peter A Stonebridge, George A Corner, J Graeme Houston, Peter R Hoskins

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (SciVal)


Arteriovenous prosthetic grafts are used in hemodialysis. Stenosis in the venous anastomosis is the main cause of occlusion and the role of local hemodynamics in this is considered significant. A new spiral graft design has been proposed to stabilize the flow phenomena in the host vein. Cross-flow vortical structures in the outflow of this graft were compared with those from a control device. Both grafts were integrated in identical in-house ultrasound-compatible flow phantoms with realistic surgical configurations. Constant flow rates were applied. In-plane 2-D velocity and vorticity mapping was developed using a vector Doppler technique. One or two vortices were detected for the spiral graft and two to four for the control, along with reduced stagnation points for the former. The in-plane peak velocity and circulation were calculated and found to be greater for the spiral device, implying increased in-plane mixing, which is believed to inhibit thrombosis and neo-intimal hyperplasia.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)760-774
Number of pages15
JournalUltrasound in Medicine & Biology
Issue number3
Early online date13 Feb 2015
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2015


  • Arteriovenous Shunt, Surgical
  • Blood Vessel Prosthesis
  • Graft Occlusion, Vascular
  • Humans
  • Imaging, Three-Dimensional
  • Phantoms, Imaging
  • Renal Dialysis
  • Ultrasonography, Doppler
  • Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color
  • Comparative Study
  • Journal Article
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't


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