Comparison of modeling techniques for a landing gear

Rebecca Margetts, Roger F. Ngwompo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


A wide range of modeling techniques is available to the engineer. The objective of this paper is to compare some typical modeling techniques for the simulation of a multidomain mechatronic system. Usual dynamic modeling methods, such as block diagrams and iconic diagrams, can cause problems for the engineer. Differential algebraic equations (DAEs) and algebraic loops can significantly increase simulation times and cause numeric errors. Bond graphs are less common in industry, and are presented here as a method which allows the engineer to easily identify causal loops and elements in differential causality. These can indicate DAEs in the underlying equations. An aircraft landing gear is given as an example of a multi-domain system, and is modeled as a block diagram, an iconic diagram and as a bond graph. The time to construct the model, time to solve and problems faced by the analyst are presented. Bond graphs offer distinct advantages in terms of the ease of implementing algebraic equations and visibility of causality. The time taken to model a system can be significantly reduced and the results appear free from computational errors. Bond graphs are therefore recommended for this type of multi-domain systems analysis.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)329-335
Number of pages7
JournalProceedings of the ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition IMECE, 2010
Issue numberPart A & B
Publication statusPublished - 2010
EventASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, 2010 - Vancouver, Canada
Duration: 12 Nov 201018 Nov 2010


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