Combined CO and Dust Scaling Relations of Depletion Time and Molecular Gas Fractions with Cosmic Time, Specific Star-formation Rate, and Stellar Mass

R. Genzel, L. J. Tacconi, D. Lutz, A. Saintonge, S. Berta, B. Magnelli, F. Combes, S. García-Burillo, R. Neri, A. Bolatto, T. Contini, S. Lilly, J. Boissier, F. Boone, N. Bouché, F. Bournaud, A. Burkert, M. Carollo, L. Colina, M. C. CooperP. Cox, C. Feruglio, N. M. Förster Schreiber, J. Freundlich, J. Gracia-Carpio, S. Juneau, K. Kovac, M. Lippa, T. Naab, P. Salome, A. Renzini, A. Sternberg, F. Walter, B. Weiner, A. Weiss, S. Wuyts

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Abstract

We combine molecular gas masses inferred from CO emission in 500 star-forming galaxies (SFGs) between z = 0 and 3, from the IRAM-COLDGASS, PHIBSS1/2, and other surveys, with gas masses derived from Herschel far-IR dust measurements in 512 galaxy stacks over the same stellar mass/redshift range. We constrain the scaling relations of molecular gas depletion timescale (t depl) and gas to stellar mass ratio (M mol gas/M* ) of SFGs near the star formation "main-sequence" with redshift, specific star-formation rate (sSFR), and stellar mass (M* ). The CO- and dust-based scaling relations agree remarkably well. This suggests that the CO → H2 mass conversion factor varies little within ±0.6 dex of the main sequence (sSFR(ms, z, M *)), and less than 0.3 dex throughout this redshift range. This study builds on and strengthens the results of earlier work. We find that t depl scales as (1 + z)–0.3 × (sSFR/sSFR(ms, z, M *))–0.5, with little dependence on M *. The resulting steep redshift dependence of M mol gas/M * ≈ (1 + z)3 mirrors that of the sSFR and probably reflects the gas supply rate. The decreasing gas fractions at high M* are driven by the flattening of the SFR-M * relation. Throughout the probed redshift range a combination of an increasing gas fraction and a decreasing depletion timescale causes a larger sSFR at constant M *. As a result, galaxy integrated samples of the M mol gas-SFR rate relation exhibit a super-linear slope, which increases with the range of sSFR. With these new relations it is now possible to determine M mol gas with an accuracy of ±0.1 dex in relative terms, and ±0.2 dex including systematic uncertainties.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages20
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Volume800
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 10 Feb 2015

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molecular gases
star formation rate
stellar mass
depletion
dust
scaling
gases
gas
galaxies
rate
stars
timescale
flattening
gas supply
mass ratios
star formation
mirrors
slopes
causes

Keywords

  • galaxies: evolution
  • galaxies: high-redshift
  • galaxies: kinematics and dynamics
  • infrared: galaxies

Cite this

Combined CO and Dust Scaling Relations of Depletion Time and Molecular Gas Fractions with Cosmic Time, Specific Star-formation Rate, and Stellar Mass. / Genzel, R.; Tacconi, L. J.; Lutz, D.; Saintonge, A.; Berta, S.; Magnelli, B.; Combes, F.; García-Burillo, S.; Neri, R.; Bolatto, A.; Contini, T.; Lilly, S.; Boissier, J.; Boone, F.; Bouché, N.; Bournaud, F.; Burkert, A.; Carollo, M.; Colina, L.; Cooper, M. C.; Cox, P.; Feruglio, C.; Förster Schreiber, N. M.; Freundlich, J.; Gracia-Carpio, J.; Juneau, S.; Kovac, K.; Lippa, M.; Naab, T.; Salome, P.; Renzini, A.; Sternberg, A.; Walter, F.; Weiner, B.; Weiss, A.; Wuyts, S.

In: Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 800, No. 1, 10.02.2015.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Genzel, R, Tacconi, LJ, Lutz, D, Saintonge, A, Berta, S, Magnelli, B, Combes, F, García-Burillo, S, Neri, R, Bolatto, A, Contini, T, Lilly, S, Boissier, J, Boone, F, Bouché, N, Bournaud, F, Burkert, A, Carollo, M, Colina, L, Cooper, MC, Cox, P, Feruglio, C, Förster Schreiber, NM, Freundlich, J, Gracia-Carpio, J, Juneau, S, Kovac, K, Lippa, M, Naab, T, Salome, P, Renzini, A, Sternberg, A, Walter, F, Weiner, B, Weiss, A & Wuyts, S 2015, 'Combined CO and Dust Scaling Relations of Depletion Time and Molecular Gas Fractions with Cosmic Time, Specific Star-formation Rate, and Stellar Mass', Astrophysical Journal, vol. 800, no. 1. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/800/1/20
Genzel, R. ; Tacconi, L. J. ; Lutz, D. ; Saintonge, A. ; Berta, S. ; Magnelli, B. ; Combes, F. ; García-Burillo, S. ; Neri, R. ; Bolatto, A. ; Contini, T. ; Lilly, S. ; Boissier, J. ; Boone, F. ; Bouché, N. ; Bournaud, F. ; Burkert, A. ; Carollo, M. ; Colina, L. ; Cooper, M. C. ; Cox, P. ; Feruglio, C. ; Förster Schreiber, N. M. ; Freundlich, J. ; Gracia-Carpio, J. ; Juneau, S. ; Kovac, K. ; Lippa, M. ; Naab, T. ; Salome, P. ; Renzini, A. ; Sternberg, A. ; Walter, F. ; Weiner, B. ; Weiss, A. ; Wuyts, S. / Combined CO and Dust Scaling Relations of Depletion Time and Molecular Gas Fractions with Cosmic Time, Specific Star-formation Rate, and Stellar Mass. In: Astrophysical Journal. 2015 ; Vol. 800, No. 1.
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abstract = "We combine molecular gas masses inferred from CO emission in 500 star-forming galaxies (SFGs) between z = 0 and 3, from the IRAM-COLDGASS, PHIBSS1/2, and other surveys, with gas masses derived from Herschel far-IR dust measurements in 512 galaxy stacks over the same stellar mass/redshift range. We constrain the scaling relations of molecular gas depletion timescale (t depl) and gas to stellar mass ratio (M mol gas/M* ) of SFGs near the star formation {"}main-sequence{"} with redshift, specific star-formation rate (sSFR), and stellar mass (M* ). The CO- and dust-based scaling relations agree remarkably well. This suggests that the CO → H2 mass conversion factor varies little within ±0.6 dex of the main sequence (sSFR(ms, z, M *)), and less than 0.3 dex throughout this redshift range. This study builds on and strengthens the results of earlier work. We find that t depl scales as (1 + z)–0.3 × (sSFR/sSFR(ms, z, M *))–0.5, with little dependence on M *. The resulting steep redshift dependence of M mol gas/M * ≈ (1 + z)3 mirrors that of the sSFR and probably reflects the gas supply rate. The decreasing gas fractions at high M* are driven by the flattening of the SFR-M * relation. Throughout the probed redshift range a combination of an increasing gas fraction and a decreasing depletion timescale causes a larger sSFR at constant M *. As a result, galaxy integrated samples of the M mol gas-SFR rate relation exhibit a super-linear slope, which increases with the range of sSFR. With these new relations it is now possible to determine M mol gas with an accuracy of ±0.1 dex in relative terms, and ±0.2 dex including systematic uncertainties.",
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T1 - Combined CO and Dust Scaling Relations of Depletion Time and Molecular Gas Fractions with Cosmic Time, Specific Star-formation Rate, and Stellar Mass

AU - Genzel, R.

AU - Tacconi, L. J.

AU - Lutz, D.

AU - Saintonge, A.

AU - Berta, S.

AU - Magnelli, B.

AU - Combes, F.

AU - García-Burillo, S.

AU - Neri, R.

AU - Bolatto, A.

AU - Contini, T.

AU - Lilly, S.

AU - Boissier, J.

AU - Boone, F.

AU - Bouché, N.

AU - Bournaud, F.

AU - Burkert, A.

AU - Carollo, M.

AU - Colina, L.

AU - Cooper, M. C.

AU - Cox, P.

AU - Feruglio, C.

AU - Förster Schreiber, N. M.

AU - Freundlich, J.

AU - Gracia-Carpio, J.

AU - Juneau, S.

AU - Kovac, K.

AU - Lippa, M.

AU - Naab, T.

AU - Salome, P.

AU - Renzini, A.

AU - Sternberg, A.

AU - Walter, F.

AU - Weiner, B.

AU - Weiss, A.

AU - Wuyts, S.

PY - 2015/2/10

Y1 - 2015/2/10

N2 - We combine molecular gas masses inferred from CO emission in 500 star-forming galaxies (SFGs) between z = 0 and 3, from the IRAM-COLDGASS, PHIBSS1/2, and other surveys, with gas masses derived from Herschel far-IR dust measurements in 512 galaxy stacks over the same stellar mass/redshift range. We constrain the scaling relations of molecular gas depletion timescale (t depl) and gas to stellar mass ratio (M mol gas/M* ) of SFGs near the star formation "main-sequence" with redshift, specific star-formation rate (sSFR), and stellar mass (M* ). The CO- and dust-based scaling relations agree remarkably well. This suggests that the CO → H2 mass conversion factor varies little within ±0.6 dex of the main sequence (sSFR(ms, z, M *)), and less than 0.3 dex throughout this redshift range. This study builds on and strengthens the results of earlier work. We find that t depl scales as (1 + z)–0.3 × (sSFR/sSFR(ms, z, M *))–0.5, with little dependence on M *. The resulting steep redshift dependence of M mol gas/M * ≈ (1 + z)3 mirrors that of the sSFR and probably reflects the gas supply rate. The decreasing gas fractions at high M* are driven by the flattening of the SFR-M * relation. Throughout the probed redshift range a combination of an increasing gas fraction and a decreasing depletion timescale causes a larger sSFR at constant M *. As a result, galaxy integrated samples of the M mol gas-SFR rate relation exhibit a super-linear slope, which increases with the range of sSFR. With these new relations it is now possible to determine M mol gas with an accuracy of ±0.1 dex in relative terms, and ±0.2 dex including systematic uncertainties.

AB - We combine molecular gas masses inferred from CO emission in 500 star-forming galaxies (SFGs) between z = 0 and 3, from the IRAM-COLDGASS, PHIBSS1/2, and other surveys, with gas masses derived from Herschel far-IR dust measurements in 512 galaxy stacks over the same stellar mass/redshift range. We constrain the scaling relations of molecular gas depletion timescale (t depl) and gas to stellar mass ratio (M mol gas/M* ) of SFGs near the star formation "main-sequence" with redshift, specific star-formation rate (sSFR), and stellar mass (M* ). The CO- and dust-based scaling relations agree remarkably well. This suggests that the CO → H2 mass conversion factor varies little within ±0.6 dex of the main sequence (sSFR(ms, z, M *)), and less than 0.3 dex throughout this redshift range. This study builds on and strengthens the results of earlier work. We find that t depl scales as (1 + z)–0.3 × (sSFR/sSFR(ms, z, M *))–0.5, with little dependence on M *. The resulting steep redshift dependence of M mol gas/M * ≈ (1 + z)3 mirrors that of the sSFR and probably reflects the gas supply rate. The decreasing gas fractions at high M* are driven by the flattening of the SFR-M * relation. Throughout the probed redshift range a combination of an increasing gas fraction and a decreasing depletion timescale causes a larger sSFR at constant M *. As a result, galaxy integrated samples of the M mol gas-SFR rate relation exhibit a super-linear slope, which increases with the range of sSFR. With these new relations it is now possible to determine M mol gas with an accuracy of ±0.1 dex in relative terms, and ±0.2 dex including systematic uncertainties.

KW - galaxies: evolution

KW - galaxies: high-redshift

KW - galaxies: kinematics and dynamics

KW - infrared: galaxies

UR - http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/800/1/20

U2 - 10.1088/0004-637X/800/1/20

DO - 10.1088/0004-637X/800/1/20

M3 - Article

VL - 800

JO - Astrophysical Journal

JF - Astrophysical Journal

SN - 0004-637X

IS - 1

ER -