Cold, clumpy accretion onto an active supermassive black hole

Grant R. Tremblay, J. B. Raymond Oonk, Françoise Combes, Philippe Salomé, Christopher P. O'Dea, Stefi A. Baum, G. Mark Voit, Megan Donahue, Brian R. McNamara, Timothy A. Davis, Michael A. McDonald, Alastair C. Edge, Tracy E. Clarke, Roberto Galván-Madrid, Malcolm N. Bremer, Louise O. V. Edwards, Andrew C. Fabian, Stephen L. Hamer, Yuan Li, Anaëlle Maury & 5 others Helen R. Russell, Alice C. Quillen, C. Megan Urry, Jeremy S. Sanders, Michael Wise

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Abstract

Supermassive black holes in galaxy centres can grow by the accretion of gas, liberating energy that might regulate star formation on galaxy-wide scales. The nature of the gaseous fuel reservoirs that power black hole growth is nevertheless largely unconstrained by observations, and is instead routinely simplified as a smooth, spherical inflow of very hot gas. Recent theory and simulations instead predict that accretion can be dominated by a stochastic, clumpy distribution of very cold molecular clouds - a departure from the "hot mode" accretion model - although unambiguous observational support for this prediction remains elusive. Here we report observations that reveal a cold, clumpy accretion flow towards a supermassive black hole fuel reservoir in the nucleus of the Abell 2597 Brightest Cluster Galaxy (BCG), a nearby (redshift z=0.0821) giant elliptical galaxy surrounded by a dense halo of hot plasma. Under the right conditions, thermal instabilities can precipitate from this hot gas, producing a rain of cold clouds that fall toward the galaxy's centre, sustaining star formation amid a kiloparsec-scale molecular nebula that inhabits its core. The observations show that these cold clouds also fuel black hole accretion, revealing "shadows" cast by the molecular clouds as they move inward at about 300 kilometres per second towards the active supermassive black hole in the galaxy centre, which serves as a bright backlight. Corroborating evidence from prior observations of warmer atomic gas at extremely high spatial resolution, along with simple arguments based on geometry and probability, indicate that these clouds are within the innermost hundred parsecs of the black hole, and falling closer towards it.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)218-222
Number of pages5
JournalNature
Volume534
Early online date8 Jun 2016
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 9 Jun 2016

Keywords

  • astro-ph.GA
  • astro-ph.HE

Cite this

Tremblay, G. R., Oonk, J. B. R., Combes, F., Salomé, P., O'Dea, C. P., Baum, S. A., ... Wise, M. (2016). Cold, clumpy accretion onto an active supermassive black hole. Nature, 534, 218-222. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature17969

Cold, clumpy accretion onto an active supermassive black hole. / Tremblay, Grant R.; Oonk, J. B. Raymond; Combes, Françoise; Salomé, Philippe; O'Dea, Christopher P.; Baum, Stefi A.; Voit, G. Mark; Donahue, Megan; McNamara, Brian R.; Davis, Timothy A.; McDonald, Michael A.; Edge, Alastair C.; Clarke, Tracy E.; Galván-Madrid, Roberto; Bremer, Malcolm N.; Edwards, Louise O. V.; Fabian, Andrew C.; Hamer, Stephen L.; Li, Yuan; Maury, Anaëlle; Russell, Helen R.; Quillen, Alice C.; Urry, C. Megan; Sanders, Jeremy S.; Wise, Michael.

In: Nature, Vol. 534, 09.06.2016, p. 218-222.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Tremblay, GR, Oonk, JBR, Combes, F, Salomé, P, O'Dea, CP, Baum, SA, Voit, GM, Donahue, M, McNamara, BR, Davis, TA, McDonald, MA, Edge, AC, Clarke, TE, Galván-Madrid, R, Bremer, MN, Edwards, LOV, Fabian, AC, Hamer, SL, Li, Y, Maury, A, Russell, HR, Quillen, AC, Urry, CM, Sanders, JS & Wise, M 2016, 'Cold, clumpy accretion onto an active supermassive black hole', Nature, vol. 534, pp. 218-222. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature17969
Tremblay GR, Oonk JBR, Combes F, Salomé P, O'Dea CP, Baum SA et al. Cold, clumpy accretion onto an active supermassive black hole. Nature. 2016 Jun 9;534:218-222. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature17969
Tremblay, Grant R. ; Oonk, J. B. Raymond ; Combes, Françoise ; Salomé, Philippe ; O'Dea, Christopher P. ; Baum, Stefi A. ; Voit, G. Mark ; Donahue, Megan ; McNamara, Brian R. ; Davis, Timothy A. ; McDonald, Michael A. ; Edge, Alastair C. ; Clarke, Tracy E. ; Galván-Madrid, Roberto ; Bremer, Malcolm N. ; Edwards, Louise O. V. ; Fabian, Andrew C. ; Hamer, Stephen L. ; Li, Yuan ; Maury, Anaëlle ; Russell, Helen R. ; Quillen, Alice C. ; Urry, C. Megan ; Sanders, Jeremy S. ; Wise, Michael. / Cold, clumpy accretion onto an active supermassive black hole. In: Nature. 2016 ; Vol. 534. pp. 218-222.
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AU - O'Dea, Christopher P.

AU - Baum, Stefi A.

AU - Voit, G. Mark

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AU - McNamara, Brian R.

AU - Davis, Timothy A.

AU - McDonald, Michael A.

AU - Edge, Alastair C.

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AU - Galván-Madrid, Roberto

AU - Bremer, Malcolm N.

AU - Edwards, Louise O. V.

AU - Fabian, Andrew C.

AU - Hamer, Stephen L.

AU - Li, Yuan

AU - Maury, Anaëlle

AU - Russell, Helen R.

AU - Quillen, Alice C.

AU - Urry, C. Megan

AU - Sanders, Jeremy S.

AU - Wise, Michael

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N2 - Supermassive black holes in galaxy centres can grow by the accretion of gas, liberating energy that might regulate star formation on galaxy-wide scales. The nature of the gaseous fuel reservoirs that power black hole growth is nevertheless largely unconstrained by observations, and is instead routinely simplified as a smooth, spherical inflow of very hot gas. Recent theory and simulations instead predict that accretion can be dominated by a stochastic, clumpy distribution of very cold molecular clouds - a departure from the "hot mode" accretion model - although unambiguous observational support for this prediction remains elusive. Here we report observations that reveal a cold, clumpy accretion flow towards a supermassive black hole fuel reservoir in the nucleus of the Abell 2597 Brightest Cluster Galaxy (BCG), a nearby (redshift z=0.0821) giant elliptical galaxy surrounded by a dense halo of hot plasma. Under the right conditions, thermal instabilities can precipitate from this hot gas, producing a rain of cold clouds that fall toward the galaxy's centre, sustaining star formation amid a kiloparsec-scale molecular nebula that inhabits its core. The observations show that these cold clouds also fuel black hole accretion, revealing "shadows" cast by the molecular clouds as they move inward at about 300 kilometres per second towards the active supermassive black hole in the galaxy centre, which serves as a bright backlight. Corroborating evidence from prior observations of warmer atomic gas at extremely high spatial resolution, along with simple arguments based on geometry and probability, indicate that these clouds are within the innermost hundred parsecs of the black hole, and falling closer towards it.

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