Coexistence of competing first passage percolation on hyperbolic graphs

Elisabetta Candellero, Alexandre Stauffer

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We study a natural growth process with competition, which was recently introduced to analyze MDLA, a challenging model for the growth of an aggregate by diffusing particles. The growth process consists of two first-passage percolation processes FPP1 and FPPλ, spreading with rates 1 and λ > 0 respectively, on a graph G. FPP1 starts from a single vertex at the origin o, while the initial configuration of FPPλ consists of infinitely many seeds distributed according to a product of Bernoulli measures of parameter μ > 0 on V (G) \ {o}. FPP1 starts spreading from time 0, while each seed of FPPλ only starts spreading after it has been reached by either FPP1 or FPPλ. A fundamental question in this model, and in growth processes with competition in general, is whether the two processes coexist (i.e., both produce infinite clusters) with positive probability. We show that this is the case when G is vertex transitive, non-amenable and hyperbolic, in particular, for any λ > 0 there is a μ0 = μ0(G, λ) > 0 such that for all μ ∈ (0, μ0) the two processes coexist with positive probability. This is the first non-trivial instance where coexistence is established for this model.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2128-2164
Number of pages37
JournalAnnales de l'Institut Henri Poincaré: Probabilités et Statistiques
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 30 Nov 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work started when E. Candellero was affiliated to the University of Warwick. E. Candellero acknowledges support from the project “Programma per Giovani Ricercatori Rita Levi Montalcini” awarded by the Italian Ministry of Education and support by “INdAM – GNAMPA Project 2019”. A. Stauffer acknowledges support from an EPSRC Early Career Fellowship.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 Institute of Mathematical Statistics. All rights reserved.


  • Coexistence
  • Competition
  • First passage percolation
  • First passage percolation in hostile environment
  • Hyperbolic graphs
  • Non-amenable graphs
  • Two-type Richardson model

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Statistics and Probability
  • Statistics, Probability and Uncertainty


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