Co-ingestion of whey protein hydrolysate with milk minerals rich in calcium potently stimulates glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion:

An RCT in healthy adults

Yung-Chih Chen, Harry Smith, Aaron Hengist, Oliver Chrzanowski-Smith, Ulla Ramer Mikkelsen, Harriet Carroll, James Betts, Dylan Thompson, John Saunders, Javier Gonzalez

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Purpose: To examine whether calcium type and co-ingestion with protein alter gut hormone availability. Methods: Healthy adults aged 26 ± 7 years (mean ± SD) completed three randomized, double-blind, crossover studies. In all studies, arterialized blood was sampled postprandially over 120 min to determine GLP-1, GIP and PYY responses, alongside appetite ratings, energy expenditure and blood pressure. In study 1 (n = 20), three treatments matched for total calcium content (1058 mg) were compared: calcium citrate (CALCITR); milk minerals rich in calcium (MILK MINERALS); and milk minerals rich in calcium plus co-ingestion of 50 g whey protein hydrolysate (MILK MINERALS + PROTEIN). In study 2 (n = 6), 50 g whey protein hydrolysate (PROTEIN) was compared to MILK MINERALS + PROTEIN. In study 3 (n = 6), MILK MINERALS was compared to the vehicle of ingestion (water plus sucralose; CONTROL). Results: MILK MINERALS + PROTEIN increased GLP-1 incremental area under the curve (iAUC) by ~ ninefold (43.7 ± 11.1 pmol L −1 120 min; p < 0.001) versus both CALCITR and MILK MINERALS, with no difference detected between CALCITR (6.6 ± 3.7 pmol L −1 120 min) and MILK MINERALS (5.3 ± 3.5 pmol L −1 120 min; p > 0.999). MILK MINERALS + PROTEIN produced a GLP-1 iAUC ~ 25% greater than PROTEIN (p = 0.024; mean difference: 9.1 ± 6.9 pmol L −1 120 min), whereas the difference between MILK MINERALS versus CONTROL was small and non-significant (p = 0.098; mean difference: 4.2 ± 5.1 pmol L −1 120 min). Conclusions: When ingested alone, milk minerals rich in calcium do not increase GLP-1 secretion compared to calcium citrate. Co-ingesting high-dose whey protein hydrolysate with milk minerals rich in calcium increases postprandial GLP-1 concentrations to some of the highest physiological levels ever reported. Registered at ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03232034, NCT03370484, NCT03370497.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-14
Number of pages14
JournalEuropean Journal of Nutrition
Early online date17 Sep 2019
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 17 Sep 2019

Keywords

  • incretins
  • calcium
  • protein
  • metabolism
  • peptide tyrosine tyrosine
  • gastric inhibitory peptide
  • postprandial
  • Calcium
  • Postprandial
  • Metabolism
  • Protein
  • Incretins
  • Gastric inhibitory polypeptide
  • Peptide tyrosine tyrosine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nutrition and Dietetics
  • Medicine (miscellaneous)

Cite this

@article{0c0467bfca7a4254b794fd873e847959,
title = "Co-ingestion of whey protein hydrolysate with milk minerals rich in calcium potently stimulates glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion:: An RCT in healthy adults",
abstract = "Purpose: To examine whether calcium type and co-ingestion with protein alter gut hormone availability. Methods: Healthy adults aged 26 ± 7 years (mean ± SD) completed three randomized, double-blind, crossover studies. In all studies, arterialized blood was sampled postprandially over 120 min to determine GLP-1, GIP and PYY responses, alongside appetite ratings, energy expenditure and blood pressure. In study 1 (n = 20), three treatments matched for total calcium content (1058 mg) were compared: calcium citrate (CALCITR); milk minerals rich in calcium (MILK MINERALS); and milk minerals rich in calcium plus co-ingestion of 50 g whey protein hydrolysate (MILK MINERALS + PROTEIN). In study 2 (n = 6), 50 g whey protein hydrolysate (PROTEIN) was compared to MILK MINERALS + PROTEIN. In study 3 (n = 6), MILK MINERALS was compared to the vehicle of ingestion (water plus sucralose; CONTROL). Results: MILK MINERALS + PROTEIN increased GLP-1 incremental area under the curve (iAUC) by ~ ninefold (43.7 ± 11.1 pmol L −1 120 min; p < 0.001) versus both CALCITR and MILK MINERALS, with no difference detected between CALCITR (6.6 ± 3.7 pmol L −1 120 min) and MILK MINERALS (5.3 ± 3.5 pmol L −1 120 min; p > 0.999). MILK MINERALS + PROTEIN produced a GLP-1 iAUC ~ 25{\%} greater than PROTEIN (p = 0.024; mean difference: 9.1 ± 6.9 pmol L −1 120 min), whereas the difference between MILK MINERALS versus CONTROL was small and non-significant (p = 0.098; mean difference: 4.2 ± 5.1 pmol L −1 120 min). Conclusions: When ingested alone, milk minerals rich in calcium do not increase GLP-1 secretion compared to calcium citrate. Co-ingesting high-dose whey protein hydrolysate with milk minerals rich in calcium increases postprandial GLP-1 concentrations to some of the highest physiological levels ever reported. Registered at ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03232034, NCT03370484, NCT03370497.",
keywords = "incretins, calcium, protein, metabolism, peptide tyrosine tyrosine, gastric inhibitory peptide, postprandial, Calcium, Postprandial, Metabolism, Protein, Incretins, Gastric inhibitory polypeptide, Peptide tyrosine tyrosine",
author = "Yung-Chih Chen and Harry Smith and Aaron Hengist and Oliver Chrzanowski-Smith and Mikkelsen, {Ulla Ramer} and Harriet Carroll and James Betts and Dylan Thompson and John Saunders and Javier Gonzalez",
year = "2019",
month = "9",
day = "17",
doi = "10.1007/s00394-019-02092-4",
language = "English",
pages = "1--14",
journal = "European Journal of Nutrition",
issn = "1436-6207",
publisher = "D. Steinkopff-Verlag",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Co-ingestion of whey protein hydrolysate with milk minerals rich in calcium potently stimulates glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion:

T2 - An RCT in healthy adults

AU - Chen, Yung-Chih

AU - Smith, Harry

AU - Hengist, Aaron

AU - Chrzanowski-Smith, Oliver

AU - Mikkelsen, Ulla Ramer

AU - Carroll, Harriet

AU - Betts, James

AU - Thompson, Dylan

AU - Saunders, John

AU - Gonzalez, Javier

PY - 2019/9/17

Y1 - 2019/9/17

N2 - Purpose: To examine whether calcium type and co-ingestion with protein alter gut hormone availability. Methods: Healthy adults aged 26 ± 7 years (mean ± SD) completed three randomized, double-blind, crossover studies. In all studies, arterialized blood was sampled postprandially over 120 min to determine GLP-1, GIP and PYY responses, alongside appetite ratings, energy expenditure and blood pressure. In study 1 (n = 20), three treatments matched for total calcium content (1058 mg) were compared: calcium citrate (CALCITR); milk minerals rich in calcium (MILK MINERALS); and milk minerals rich in calcium plus co-ingestion of 50 g whey protein hydrolysate (MILK MINERALS + PROTEIN). In study 2 (n = 6), 50 g whey protein hydrolysate (PROTEIN) was compared to MILK MINERALS + PROTEIN. In study 3 (n = 6), MILK MINERALS was compared to the vehicle of ingestion (water plus sucralose; CONTROL). Results: MILK MINERALS + PROTEIN increased GLP-1 incremental area under the curve (iAUC) by ~ ninefold (43.7 ± 11.1 pmol L −1 120 min; p < 0.001) versus both CALCITR and MILK MINERALS, with no difference detected between CALCITR (6.6 ± 3.7 pmol L −1 120 min) and MILK MINERALS (5.3 ± 3.5 pmol L −1 120 min; p > 0.999). MILK MINERALS + PROTEIN produced a GLP-1 iAUC ~ 25% greater than PROTEIN (p = 0.024; mean difference: 9.1 ± 6.9 pmol L −1 120 min), whereas the difference between MILK MINERALS versus CONTROL was small and non-significant (p = 0.098; mean difference: 4.2 ± 5.1 pmol L −1 120 min). Conclusions: When ingested alone, milk minerals rich in calcium do not increase GLP-1 secretion compared to calcium citrate. Co-ingesting high-dose whey protein hydrolysate with milk minerals rich in calcium increases postprandial GLP-1 concentrations to some of the highest physiological levels ever reported. Registered at ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03232034, NCT03370484, NCT03370497.

AB - Purpose: To examine whether calcium type and co-ingestion with protein alter gut hormone availability. Methods: Healthy adults aged 26 ± 7 years (mean ± SD) completed three randomized, double-blind, crossover studies. In all studies, arterialized blood was sampled postprandially over 120 min to determine GLP-1, GIP and PYY responses, alongside appetite ratings, energy expenditure and blood pressure. In study 1 (n = 20), three treatments matched for total calcium content (1058 mg) were compared: calcium citrate (CALCITR); milk minerals rich in calcium (MILK MINERALS); and milk minerals rich in calcium plus co-ingestion of 50 g whey protein hydrolysate (MILK MINERALS + PROTEIN). In study 2 (n = 6), 50 g whey protein hydrolysate (PROTEIN) was compared to MILK MINERALS + PROTEIN. In study 3 (n = 6), MILK MINERALS was compared to the vehicle of ingestion (water plus sucralose; CONTROL). Results: MILK MINERALS + PROTEIN increased GLP-1 incremental area under the curve (iAUC) by ~ ninefold (43.7 ± 11.1 pmol L −1 120 min; p < 0.001) versus both CALCITR and MILK MINERALS, with no difference detected between CALCITR (6.6 ± 3.7 pmol L −1 120 min) and MILK MINERALS (5.3 ± 3.5 pmol L −1 120 min; p > 0.999). MILK MINERALS + PROTEIN produced a GLP-1 iAUC ~ 25% greater than PROTEIN (p = 0.024; mean difference: 9.1 ± 6.9 pmol L −1 120 min), whereas the difference between MILK MINERALS versus CONTROL was small and non-significant (p = 0.098; mean difference: 4.2 ± 5.1 pmol L −1 120 min). Conclusions: When ingested alone, milk minerals rich in calcium do not increase GLP-1 secretion compared to calcium citrate. Co-ingesting high-dose whey protein hydrolysate with milk minerals rich in calcium increases postprandial GLP-1 concentrations to some of the highest physiological levels ever reported. Registered at ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03232034, NCT03370484, NCT03370497.

KW - incretins

KW - calcium

KW - protein

KW - metabolism

KW - peptide tyrosine tyrosine

KW - gastric inhibitory peptide

KW - postprandial

KW - Calcium

KW - Postprandial

KW - Metabolism

KW - Protein

KW - Incretins

KW - Gastric inhibitory polypeptide

KW - Peptide tyrosine tyrosine

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85073815425&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1007/s00394-019-02092-4

DO - 10.1007/s00394-019-02092-4

M3 - Article

SP - 1

EP - 14

JO - European Journal of Nutrition

JF - European Journal of Nutrition

SN - 1436-6207

ER -