The atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition (APCVD) reaction of VCl4 or VOCl3 with cyclohexylphosphine at substrate temperatures of 600 degreesC deposits thin films of amorphous vanadium phosphide. The films are black - gold, hard, chemically resistant and conductive. The APCVD reaction of MCl5 (where M = Nb or Ta) with cyclohexylphosphine at 500 - 600 degreesC deposits films of crystalline beta-MP and at 400 degreesC - 450 degreesC amorphous films of stoichiometry MP are formed. The MP films are metallic, conductive, adherent and chemically resistant.
Blackman, C. S., Carmalt, C. J., O'Neill, S. A., Parkin, I. P., Molloy, K. C., & Apostolico, L. (2003). Chemical vapour deposition of group Vb metal phosphide thin films. Journal of Materials Chemistry, 13(8), 1930-1935. https://doi.org/10.1039/b304084b