Characterisation of residual stresses and oxides in titanium, nickel, and aluminium alloy additive manufacturing powders via synchrotron X-ray diffraction

Max D.A. Valentine, Vimal Dhokia, Joseph Flynn, Sophie A.M. McNair, Alexander J.G. Lunt

Research output: Contribution to specialist publicationArticle

2 Citations (SciVal)


The strength and fracture toughness of Additively Manufactured (AM) components are significantly influenced by the concentration and size of oxides and precipitate inclusions within the build powders. These features are highly sensitive to powder production parameters, as well as the number of times a powder has been reused. In this study synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction was performed in an inert atmosphere at room temperature and during in-situ heating, providing crucial insights into growth rates and distribution of oxides and precipitates as a function of temperature. From the high angular resolution data collected, the structural refinement showed that plasma wire arc atomisation shows lower residual strain than gas atomised powder samples at room temperature after atomisation likely due to lower temperatures achieved during the production process. Additionally, the results from the diffraction patterns collected during in-situ heating provide key insights to the four metal powders considered in this study, Ti-6Al-4 V, Ni718, AlSi10Mg, and Scalmalloy. This paper also highlights the potential that using synchrotron X-ray diffraction to study AM parts and constituent AM powder has to gain crucial insight into material properties and the build reliability of end use production quality parts from AM.

Original languageEnglish
Specialist publicationMaterials Today Communications
Publication statusPublished - 30 Jun 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors would like to thank Carpenter technology for providing the powder samples, Diamond Light Source for access to synchrotron X-ray diffraction with proposal number 23975, and Dr. Sarah Day and Dr. Chiu Tang for their assistance with the TOPAS structural Rietveld refinements. We would also wish to acknowledge the use of the EPSRC funded Physical Sciences Data-science Service hosted by the University of Southampton and STFC under grant number EP/S020357/1 .

Data Availability
The authors are unable or have chosen not to specify which data has been used.


  • Additive manufacturing
  • Oxidation
  • Phase shift
  • Residual stress
  • Synchrotron diffraction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Materials Chemistry


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