Accurate real-time engine models are an essential step to allow the development of control algorithms in parallel to the development of engine hardware using hardware-in-the-loop applications. A physics-based model of the engine high-pressure air path and combustion chamber is presented. The model was parameterised using data from a small set of carefully selected operating conditions for a 2.0 l diesel engine. The model was subsequently validated over the complete engine operating map with exhaust gas recirculation and without exhaust gas recirculation. A high level of fit was achieved with R2 values above 0.94 for the mean effective pressure and above 0.99 for the air flow rate. The model run time was then reduced for real-time application by using forward differencing and single-precision floating-point numbers and by calculating the in-cylinder prediction for only a single cylinder. A further improvement of 25% in the run time was achieved by improving the submodels, including the strategic use of one-dimensional and two-dimensional look-up tables with optimised resolution. The model exceeds the performance of similar models in the literature, achieving a crank angle resolution of 0.5° at 4000 r/min. This simulation step size still yields good accuracy in comparison with a crank angle resolution of 0.1° and was validated against the experimental results from a New European Driving Cycle. The real-time model allows the development of control strategies before the engine hardware is available, meaning that more time can be spent to ensure that the engine can meet the performance and the emissions requirements over its full operating range.
|Number of pages||32|
|Journal||Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering|
|Early online date||1 Feb 2017|
|Publication status||Published - 1 Dec 2017|