Cellular automaton model of crowd evacuation inspired by slime mould

V. S. Kalogeiton, D. P. Papadopoulos, I. P. Georgilas, G. Ch Sirakoulis, A. I. Adamatzky

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

31 Citations (SciVal)


In all the living organisms, the self-preservation behaviour is almost universal. Even the most simple of living organisms, like slime mould, is typically under intense selective pressure to evolve a response to ensure their evolution and safety in the best possible way. On the other hand, evacuation of a place can be easily characterized as one of the most stressful situations for the individuals taking part on it. Taking inspiration from the slime mould behaviour, we are introducing a computational bio-inspired model crowd evacuation model. Cellular Automata (CA) were selected as a fully parallel advanced computation tool able to mimic the Physarum's behaviour. In particular, the proposed CA model takes into account while mimicking the Physarum foraging process, the food diffusion, the organism's growth, the creation of tubes for each organism, the selection of optimum tube for each human in correspondence to the crowd evacuation under study and finally, the movement of all humans at each time step towards near exit. To test the model's efficiency and robustness, several simulation scenarios were proposed both in virtual and real-life indoor environments (namely, the first floor of office building B of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering of Democritus University of Thrace). The proposed model is further evaluated in a purely quantitative way by comparing the simulation results with the corresponding ones from the bibliography taken by real data. The examined fundamental diagrams of velocity-density and flow-density are found in full agreement with many of the already published corresponding results proving the adequacy, the fitness and the resulting dynamics of the model. Finally, several real Physarum experiments were conducted in an archetype of the aforementioned real-life environment proving at last that the proposed model succeeded in reproducing sufficiently the Physarum's recorded behaviour derived from observation of the aforementioned biological laboratory experiments.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)354-391
Number of pages38
JournalInternational Journal of General Systems
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 3 Apr 2015


  • bio-mimicking
  • cellular automata
  • crowd evacuation
  • fundamental diagrams
  • Physarum polycephalum
  • tubular networks

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Theoretical Computer Science
  • Information Systems
  • Modelling and Simulation
  • Computer Science Applications


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