1,3-Butadiene is an important constituent of many products that we rely upon. It is currently prepared from non-sustainably derived sources. However, in the early part of the 20th Century the use of ethanol as a source of 1,3-butadiene has been reported. With the arrival of a cheap and bountiful supply of crude-oil derived sources the need for the sustainable route was deemed unnecessary. In recent years the conversion of ethanol to 1,3-butadiene has undergone somewhat of a mini resurgence as the chemical industry looks to try to find a sustainable and secure route to this important building block. This review will emphasise some of the most recent work in the field and look ahead to what needs to be achieved to make this research a reality.