Molecular imaging and applications of nanotechnology in health care are interlinked research areas that are currently of high strategic importance to Europe and worldwide. In this sense, there is great current interest in understanding behavior in cells for target-specific pharmaceuticals assembled for the early detection and therapy of diseases (ranging from cancer to cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases). To date, little is understood about the most effective way to assemble and deliver in a targeted manner multimodal contrast agents (here defined as “all in one” imaging probes incorporating metals and metal complexes leading to optical/radiopharmaceuticals and/or paramagnetic nanomaterials) necessary to achieve high-resolution images of processes taking place in cells and tissues, the mechanisms of their uptake in cells and tissues, and the effect that these functional imaging tools have on the targeted cells and tissues. In particular, limited information exists regarding the mechanisms of interactions between functional carbon nanomaterials as new inorganic material-based nanodiagnostics and therapeutic agents for imaging and therapy in diagnostic medicine and cells. A major aspect of this overview that has been virtually unexplored to date in current literature is to rationalize and evaluate the nature and strength of connections among different components of the probe, and to comment on the likely impact on the overall biological functionalities, which is necessary before evaluating their interactions with living systems. In this chapter, different and perhaps unconventional approaches to developing a test-informed protocol for constructing complete bioimaging probes (incorporating inorganic and organometallic transition metal complexes and carbon nanomaterial scaffolds) and testing their functionalities in cells are highlighted. Some approaches to testing and monitoring the delivery, cytotoxicity, and uptake of mechanisms of bioimaging probes assembled on single-walled carbon nanotube scaffolds into a variety of healthy and diseased cells of the complete probes are reviewed. These may be localized on the cells’ surface or inside the cells when derivatized with a targeting group or self-targeted (without a tagged targeting unit).
|Title of host publication||Inorganic and Organometallic Transition Metal Complexes with Biological Molecules and Living Cells|
|Editors||Kenneth Kam-Wing Lo|
|Place of Publication||Hong Kong|
|Publisher||Elsevier Academic Press Inc|
|Publication status||Published - Jan 2017|