Carbon nanoparticle surface electrochemistry: high-density covalent immobilisation and pore-reactivity of 9,10-anthraquinone

John D Watkins, Katherine Lawrence, James E Taylor, Tony James, Steven D Bull, Frank Marken

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  • 16 Citations

Abstract

2-Bromomethyl-9,10-anthraquinone is covalently bound to carbon nanoparticle surfaces (Emperor 2000, Cabot Corp., with sulphonamide groups, ca. 9 to 18 nm diameter) with a coverage of ca. 250 anthraquinone molecules per particle (ca. 180 angstrom(2) per anthraquinone). The resulting hydrophobic carbon particles are dispersed in ethanol and coated onto glassy carbon electrodes. Electrochemical experiments are reported demonstrating the effect of surface coverage, scan rate, and pH. A linear shift in reversible potential of ca. 59 mV per pH unit from pH 2 to 12 is observed consistent with the reversible 2-electron 2-proton reduction of anthraquinone. High density of anthraquinone in carbon nanoparticle aggregates causes buffer capacity effects. Binding of hydrophobic tetraphenylborate anions into carbon nanoparticle aggregate pores is demonstrated. Applications in buffer characterisation and pH-sensing are discussed.
LanguageEnglish
Pages1320-1324
Number of pages5
JournalElectroanalysis
Volume23
Issue number6
DOIs
StatusPublished - Jun 2011

Fingerprint

Anthraquinones
Electrochemistry
Carbon
Nanoparticles
Buffers
Tetraphenylborate
Sulfonamides
Glassy carbon
Anions
Protons
Ethanol
Negative ions
Electrodes
Molecules
9,10-anthraquinone
Electrons
Experiments

Keywords

  • sulfonamide
  • thin film
  • buffer capacity
  • modified surface
  • voltammetry
  • surface immobilisation
  • carbon nanoparticles
  • anthraquinone
  • double layer
  • pH

Cite this

Carbon nanoparticle surface electrochemistry: high-density covalent immobilisation and pore-reactivity of 9,10-anthraquinone. / Watkins, John D; Lawrence, Katherine; Taylor, James E; James, Tony; Bull, Steven D; Marken, Frank.

In: Electroanalysis, Vol. 23, No. 6, 06.2011, p. 1320-1324.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "2-Bromomethyl-9,10-anthraquinone is covalently bound to carbon nanoparticle surfaces (Emperor 2000, Cabot Corp., with sulphonamide groups, ca. 9 to 18 nm diameter) with a coverage of ca. 250 anthraquinone molecules per particle (ca. 180 angstrom(2) per anthraquinone). The resulting hydrophobic carbon particles are dispersed in ethanol and coated onto glassy carbon electrodes. Electrochemical experiments are reported demonstrating the effect of surface coverage, scan rate, and pH. A linear shift in reversible potential of ca. 59 mV per pH unit from pH 2 to 12 is observed consistent with the reversible 2-electron 2-proton reduction of anthraquinone. High density of anthraquinone in carbon nanoparticle aggregates causes buffer capacity effects. Binding of hydrophobic tetraphenylborate anions into carbon nanoparticle aggregate pores is demonstrated. Applications in buffer characterisation and pH-sensing are discussed.",
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AB - 2-Bromomethyl-9,10-anthraquinone is covalently bound to carbon nanoparticle surfaces (Emperor 2000, Cabot Corp., with sulphonamide groups, ca. 9 to 18 nm diameter) with a coverage of ca. 250 anthraquinone molecules per particle (ca. 180 angstrom(2) per anthraquinone). The resulting hydrophobic carbon particles are dispersed in ethanol and coated onto glassy carbon electrodes. Electrochemical experiments are reported demonstrating the effect of surface coverage, scan rate, and pH. A linear shift in reversible potential of ca. 59 mV per pH unit from pH 2 to 12 is observed consistent with the reversible 2-electron 2-proton reduction of anthraquinone. High density of anthraquinone in carbon nanoparticle aggregates causes buffer capacity effects. Binding of hydrophobic tetraphenylborate anions into carbon nanoparticle aggregate pores is demonstrated. Applications in buffer characterisation and pH-sensing are discussed.

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