Carbohydrate-rich breakfast attenuates glycaemic, insulinaemic and ghrelin response to ad libitum lunch relative to morning fasting in lean adults

Enhad A. Chowdhury, Judith D. Richardson, Kostas Tsintzas, Dylan Thompson, James A. Betts

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Abstract

Breakfast omission is associated with obesity and cardiovascular disease/diabetes, but the acute effects of extended morning fasting upon subsequent energy intake and metabolic/hormonal responses have received less attention. In a randomised crossover design, thirty-five lean men (n=14) and women (n=21) extended their overnight fast or ingested a typical carbohydrate-rich breakfast in quantities relative to resting metabolic rate (i.e. 1963±238 kJ), before an ad libitum lunch 3 hours later. Blood samples were obtained hourly throughout the day until 3 hours post-lunch, with subjective appetite measures assessed. Lunch intake was greater following extended fasting (640±1042 kJ, P<0.01) but incompletely compensated for the omitted breakfast, with total intake lower than the breakfast trial (3887±1326 kJ vs 5213±1590 kJ, P<0.001). Systemic concentrations of peptide tyrosine-tyrosine and leptin were greater during the afternoon following breakfast (both P<0.05) but neither acylated/total ghrelin concentrations were suppressed by the ad libitum lunch in the breakfast trial, remaining greater than the morning fasting trial throughout the afternoon (all P<0.05). Insulin concentrations were greater during the afternoon in the morning fasting trial (all P<0.01). There were no differences between trials in subjective appetite during the afternoon. In conclusion, morning fasting caused incomplete energy compensation at an ad libitum lunch. Breakfast increased some anorectic hormones during the afternoon but paradoxically abolished ghrelin suppression by the second-meal. Extending morning fasting until lunch altered subsequent metabolic and hormonal responses but without greater appetite during the afternoon. This study clarifies the impact of acute breakfast omission and adds novel insights into second-meal metabolism.
LanguageEnglish
Pages98-107
JournalBritish Journal of Nutrition
Volume114
Issue number01
DOIs
StatusPublished - Jul 2015

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Lunch
Ghrelin
Breakfast
Fasting
Carbohydrates
Appetite
tyrosyltyrosine
Meals
Basal Metabolism
Appetite Depressants
Leptin
Energy Intake
Cross-Over Studies
Cardiovascular Diseases
Obesity
Hormones
Insulin

Keywords

  • Breakfast skipping
  • Appetite Hormones
  • Insulin Sensitivity
  • Second-meal effect
  • Energy Intake

Cite this

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title = "Carbohydrate-rich breakfast attenuates glycaemic, insulinaemic and ghrelin response to ad libitum lunch relative to morning fasting in lean adults",
abstract = "Breakfast omission is associated with obesity and cardiovascular disease/diabetes, but the acute effects of extended morning fasting upon subsequent energy intake and metabolic/hormonal responses have received less attention. In a randomised crossover design, thirty-five lean men (n=14) and women (n=21) extended their overnight fast or ingested a typical carbohydrate-rich breakfast in quantities relative to resting metabolic rate (i.e. 1963±238 kJ), before an ad libitum lunch 3 hours later. Blood samples were obtained hourly throughout the day until 3 hours post-lunch, with subjective appetite measures assessed. Lunch intake was greater following extended fasting (640±1042 kJ, P<0.01) but incompletely compensated for the omitted breakfast, with total intake lower than the breakfast trial (3887±1326 kJ vs 5213±1590 kJ, P<0.001). Systemic concentrations of peptide tyrosine-tyrosine and leptin were greater during the afternoon following breakfast (both P<0.05) but neither acylated/total ghrelin concentrations were suppressed by the ad libitum lunch in the breakfast trial, remaining greater than the morning fasting trial throughout the afternoon (all P<0.05). Insulin concentrations were greater during the afternoon in the morning fasting trial (all P<0.01). There were no differences between trials in subjective appetite during the afternoon. In conclusion, morning fasting caused incomplete energy compensation at an ad libitum lunch. Breakfast increased some anorectic hormones during the afternoon but paradoxically abolished ghrelin suppression by the second-meal. Extending morning fasting until lunch altered subsequent metabolic and hormonal responses but without greater appetite during the afternoon. This study clarifies the impact of acute breakfast omission and adds novel insights into second-meal metabolism.",
keywords = "Breakfast skipping, Appetite Hormones, Insulin Sensitivity, Second-meal effect, Energy Intake",
author = "Chowdhury, {Enhad A.} and Richardson, {Judith D.} and Kostas Tsintzas and Dylan Thompson and Betts, {James A.}",
year = "2015",
month = "7",
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language = "English",
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pages = "98--107",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Carbohydrate-rich breakfast attenuates glycaemic, insulinaemic and ghrelin response to ad libitum lunch relative to morning fasting in lean adults

AU - Chowdhury, Enhad A.

AU - Richardson, Judith D.

AU - Tsintzas, Kostas

AU - Thompson, Dylan

AU - Betts, James A.

PY - 2015/7

Y1 - 2015/7

N2 - Breakfast omission is associated with obesity and cardiovascular disease/diabetes, but the acute effects of extended morning fasting upon subsequent energy intake and metabolic/hormonal responses have received less attention. In a randomised crossover design, thirty-five lean men (n=14) and women (n=21) extended their overnight fast or ingested a typical carbohydrate-rich breakfast in quantities relative to resting metabolic rate (i.e. 1963±238 kJ), before an ad libitum lunch 3 hours later. Blood samples were obtained hourly throughout the day until 3 hours post-lunch, with subjective appetite measures assessed. Lunch intake was greater following extended fasting (640±1042 kJ, P<0.01) but incompletely compensated for the omitted breakfast, with total intake lower than the breakfast trial (3887±1326 kJ vs 5213±1590 kJ, P<0.001). Systemic concentrations of peptide tyrosine-tyrosine and leptin were greater during the afternoon following breakfast (both P<0.05) but neither acylated/total ghrelin concentrations were suppressed by the ad libitum lunch in the breakfast trial, remaining greater than the morning fasting trial throughout the afternoon (all P<0.05). Insulin concentrations were greater during the afternoon in the morning fasting trial (all P<0.01). There were no differences between trials in subjective appetite during the afternoon. In conclusion, morning fasting caused incomplete energy compensation at an ad libitum lunch. Breakfast increased some anorectic hormones during the afternoon but paradoxically abolished ghrelin suppression by the second-meal. Extending morning fasting until lunch altered subsequent metabolic and hormonal responses but without greater appetite during the afternoon. This study clarifies the impact of acute breakfast omission and adds novel insights into second-meal metabolism.

AB - Breakfast omission is associated with obesity and cardiovascular disease/diabetes, but the acute effects of extended morning fasting upon subsequent energy intake and metabolic/hormonal responses have received less attention. In a randomised crossover design, thirty-five lean men (n=14) and women (n=21) extended their overnight fast or ingested a typical carbohydrate-rich breakfast in quantities relative to resting metabolic rate (i.e. 1963±238 kJ), before an ad libitum lunch 3 hours later. Blood samples were obtained hourly throughout the day until 3 hours post-lunch, with subjective appetite measures assessed. Lunch intake was greater following extended fasting (640±1042 kJ, P<0.01) but incompletely compensated for the omitted breakfast, with total intake lower than the breakfast trial (3887±1326 kJ vs 5213±1590 kJ, P<0.001). Systemic concentrations of peptide tyrosine-tyrosine and leptin were greater during the afternoon following breakfast (both P<0.05) but neither acylated/total ghrelin concentrations were suppressed by the ad libitum lunch in the breakfast trial, remaining greater than the morning fasting trial throughout the afternoon (all P<0.05). Insulin concentrations were greater during the afternoon in the morning fasting trial (all P<0.01). There were no differences between trials in subjective appetite during the afternoon. In conclusion, morning fasting caused incomplete energy compensation at an ad libitum lunch. Breakfast increased some anorectic hormones during the afternoon but paradoxically abolished ghrelin suppression by the second-meal. Extending morning fasting until lunch altered subsequent metabolic and hormonal responses but without greater appetite during the afternoon. This study clarifies the impact of acute breakfast omission and adds novel insights into second-meal metabolism.

KW - Breakfast skipping

KW - Appetite Hormones

KW - Insulin Sensitivity

KW - Second-meal effect

KW - Energy Intake

UR - http://www.journals.cambridge.org/abstract_S0007114515001506

UR - http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114515001506

UR - http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114515001506

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DO - 10.1017/S0007114515001506

M3 - Article

VL - 114

SP - 98

EP - 107

JO - British Journal of Nutrition

T2 - British Journal of Nutrition

JF - British Journal of Nutrition

SN - 0007-1145

IS - 01

ER -