CANDELS

Elevated Black Hole Growth in the Progenitors of Compact Quiescent Galaxies at z ∼ 2

Dale D. Kocevski, Guillermo Barro, S.~M. Faber, Avishai Dekel, Rachel S. Somerville, Joshua A. Young, Christina C. Williams, Daniel H. McIntosh, Antonis Georgakakis, Guenther Hasinger, Kirpal Nandra, Francesca Civano, David M. Alexander, Omar Almaini, Christopher J. Conselice, Jennifer L. Donley, Harry C. Ferguson, Mauro Giavalisco, Norman A. Grogin, Nimish P. Hathi & 14 others Matthew Hawkins, Anton M. Koekemoer, David C. Koo, Elizabeth J. McGrath, Bahram Mobasher, Pablo G. Pérez-González, Janine Pforr, Joel R. Primack, Paola Santini, Mauro Stefanon, Jonathan R. Trump, Arjen van der Wel, Stijn Wuyts, Haojing Yan

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Abstract

We examine the fraction of massive (M M ∗ > 1010) compact star-forming galaxies (cSFGs) that host an active galactic nucleus (AGN) at z ∼ 2. These cSFGs are likely the direct progenitors of the compact quiescent galaxies observed at this epoch, which are the first population of passive galaxies to appear in large numbers in the early Universe. We identify cSFGs that host an AGN using a combination of Hubble WFC3 imaging and Chandra X-ray observations in four fields: the Chandra Deep Fields, the Extended Groth Strip, and the UKIDSS Ultra Deep Survey field. We find that 39.2 % - +3.6 3.9 (65/166) of cSFGs at 1.4 3.0 < z < host an X-ray detected AGN. This fraction is 3.2 times higher than the incidence of AGN in extended star-forming galaxies with similar masses at these redshifts. This difference is significant at the 6.2s level. Our results are consistent with models in which cSFGs are formed through a dissipative contraction that triggers a compact starburst and concurrent growth of the central black hole. We also discuss our findings in the context of cosmological galaxy evolution simulations that require feedback energy to rapidly quench cSFGs. We show that the AGN fraction peaks precisely where energy injection is needed to reproduce the decline in the number density of cSFGs with redshift. Our results suggest that the first abundant population of massive quenched galaxies emerged directly following a phase of elevated supermassive black hole growth and further hints at a possible connection between AGN and the rapid quenching of star formation in these galaxies.

Original languageEnglish
Article number112
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Volume846
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 10 Sep 2017

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compact galaxies
galaxies
active galactic nuclei
stars
contraction
field survey
energy
simulation
star formation
strip
x rays

Keywords

  • galaxies: active
  • galaxies: evolution
  • X-rays: galaxies

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

Kocevski, D. D., Barro, G., Faber, S. M., Dekel, A., Somerville, R. S., Young, J. A., ... Yan, H. (2017). CANDELS: Elevated Black Hole Growth in the Progenitors of Compact Quiescent Galaxies at z ∼ 2. Astrophysical Journal, 846(2), [112]. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aa8566

CANDELS : Elevated Black Hole Growth in the Progenitors of Compact Quiescent Galaxies at z ∼ 2. / Kocevski, Dale D.; Barro, Guillermo; Faber, S.~M.; Dekel, Avishai; Somerville, Rachel S.; Young, Joshua A.; Williams, Christina C.; McIntosh, Daniel H.; Georgakakis, Antonis; Hasinger, Guenther; Nandra, Kirpal; Civano, Francesca; Alexander, David M.; Almaini, Omar; Conselice, Christopher J.; Donley, Jennifer L.; Ferguson, Harry C.; Giavalisco, Mauro; Grogin, Norman A.; Hathi, Nimish P.; Hawkins, Matthew; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Koo, David C.; McGrath, Elizabeth J.; Mobasher, Bahram; Pérez-González, Pablo G.; Pforr, Janine; Primack, Joel R.; Santini, Paola; Stefanon, Mauro; Trump, Jonathan R.; van der Wel, Arjen; Wuyts, Stijn; Yan, Haojing.

In: Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 846, No. 2, 112, 10.09.2017.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Kocevski, DD, Barro, G, Faber, SM, Dekel, A, Somerville, RS, Young, JA, Williams, CC, McIntosh, DH, Georgakakis, A, Hasinger, G, Nandra, K, Civano, F, Alexander, DM, Almaini, O, Conselice, CJ, Donley, JL, Ferguson, HC, Giavalisco, M, Grogin, NA, Hathi, NP, Hawkins, M, Koekemoer, AM, Koo, DC, McGrath, EJ, Mobasher, B, Pérez-González, PG, Pforr, J, Primack, JR, Santini, P, Stefanon, M, Trump, JR, van der Wel, A, Wuyts, S & Yan, H 2017, 'CANDELS: Elevated Black Hole Growth in the Progenitors of Compact Quiescent Galaxies at z ∼ 2', Astrophysical Journal, vol. 846, no. 2, 112. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aa8566
Kocevski, Dale D. ; Barro, Guillermo ; Faber, S.~M. ; Dekel, Avishai ; Somerville, Rachel S. ; Young, Joshua A. ; Williams, Christina C. ; McIntosh, Daniel H. ; Georgakakis, Antonis ; Hasinger, Guenther ; Nandra, Kirpal ; Civano, Francesca ; Alexander, David M. ; Almaini, Omar ; Conselice, Christopher J. ; Donley, Jennifer L. ; Ferguson, Harry C. ; Giavalisco, Mauro ; Grogin, Norman A. ; Hathi, Nimish P. ; Hawkins, Matthew ; Koekemoer, Anton M. ; Koo, David C. ; McGrath, Elizabeth J. ; Mobasher, Bahram ; Pérez-González, Pablo G. ; Pforr, Janine ; Primack, Joel R. ; Santini, Paola ; Stefanon, Mauro ; Trump, Jonathan R. ; van der Wel, Arjen ; Wuyts, Stijn ; Yan, Haojing. / CANDELS : Elevated Black Hole Growth in the Progenitors of Compact Quiescent Galaxies at z ∼ 2. In: Astrophysical Journal. 2017 ; Vol. 846, No. 2.
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abstract = "We examine the fraction of massive (M M ∗ > 1010) compact star-forming galaxies (cSFGs) that host an active galactic nucleus (AGN) at z ∼ 2. These cSFGs are likely the direct progenitors of the compact quiescent galaxies observed at this epoch, which are the first population of passive galaxies to appear in large numbers in the early Universe. We identify cSFGs that host an AGN using a combination of Hubble WFC3 imaging and Chandra X-ray observations in four fields: the Chandra Deep Fields, the Extended Groth Strip, and the UKIDSS Ultra Deep Survey field. We find that 39.2 {\%} - +3.6 3.9 (65/166) of cSFGs at 1.4 3.0 < z < host an X-ray detected AGN. This fraction is 3.2 times higher than the incidence of AGN in extended star-forming galaxies with similar masses at these redshifts. This difference is significant at the 6.2s level. Our results are consistent with models in which cSFGs are formed through a dissipative contraction that triggers a compact starburst and concurrent growth of the central black hole. We also discuss our findings in the context of cosmological galaxy evolution simulations that require feedback energy to rapidly quench cSFGs. We show that the AGN fraction peaks precisely where energy injection is needed to reproduce the decline in the number density of cSFGs with redshift. Our results suggest that the first abundant population of massive quenched galaxies emerged directly following a phase of elevated supermassive black hole growth and further hints at a possible connection between AGN and the rapid quenching of star formation in these galaxies.",
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T2 - Elevated Black Hole Growth in the Progenitors of Compact Quiescent Galaxies at z ∼ 2

AU - Kocevski, Dale D.

AU - Barro, Guillermo

AU - Faber, S.~M.

AU - Dekel, Avishai

AU - Somerville, Rachel S.

AU - Young, Joshua A.

AU - Williams, Christina C.

AU - McIntosh, Daniel H.

AU - Georgakakis, Antonis

AU - Hasinger, Guenther

AU - Nandra, Kirpal

AU - Civano, Francesca

AU - Alexander, David M.

AU - Almaini, Omar

AU - Conselice, Christopher J.

AU - Donley, Jennifer L.

AU - Ferguson, Harry C.

AU - Giavalisco, Mauro

AU - Grogin, Norman A.

AU - Hathi, Nimish P.

AU - Hawkins, Matthew

AU - Koekemoer, Anton M.

AU - Koo, David C.

AU - McGrath, Elizabeth J.

AU - Mobasher, Bahram

AU - Pérez-González, Pablo G.

AU - Pforr, Janine

AU - Primack, Joel R.

AU - Santini, Paola

AU - Stefanon, Mauro

AU - Trump, Jonathan R.

AU - van der Wel, Arjen

AU - Wuyts, Stijn

AU - Yan, Haojing

PY - 2017/9/10

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N2 - We examine the fraction of massive (M M ∗ > 1010) compact star-forming galaxies (cSFGs) that host an active galactic nucleus (AGN) at z ∼ 2. These cSFGs are likely the direct progenitors of the compact quiescent galaxies observed at this epoch, which are the first population of passive galaxies to appear in large numbers in the early Universe. We identify cSFGs that host an AGN using a combination of Hubble WFC3 imaging and Chandra X-ray observations in four fields: the Chandra Deep Fields, the Extended Groth Strip, and the UKIDSS Ultra Deep Survey field. We find that 39.2 % - +3.6 3.9 (65/166) of cSFGs at 1.4 3.0 < z < host an X-ray detected AGN. This fraction is 3.2 times higher than the incidence of AGN in extended star-forming galaxies with similar masses at these redshifts. This difference is significant at the 6.2s level. Our results are consistent with models in which cSFGs are formed through a dissipative contraction that triggers a compact starburst and concurrent growth of the central black hole. We also discuss our findings in the context of cosmological galaxy evolution simulations that require feedback energy to rapidly quench cSFGs. We show that the AGN fraction peaks precisely where energy injection is needed to reproduce the decline in the number density of cSFGs with redshift. Our results suggest that the first abundant population of massive quenched galaxies emerged directly following a phase of elevated supermassive black hole growth and further hints at a possible connection between AGN and the rapid quenching of star formation in these galaxies.

AB - We examine the fraction of massive (M M ∗ > 1010) compact star-forming galaxies (cSFGs) that host an active galactic nucleus (AGN) at z ∼ 2. These cSFGs are likely the direct progenitors of the compact quiescent galaxies observed at this epoch, which are the first population of passive galaxies to appear in large numbers in the early Universe. We identify cSFGs that host an AGN using a combination of Hubble WFC3 imaging and Chandra X-ray observations in four fields: the Chandra Deep Fields, the Extended Groth Strip, and the UKIDSS Ultra Deep Survey field. We find that 39.2 % - +3.6 3.9 (65/166) of cSFGs at 1.4 3.0 < z < host an X-ray detected AGN. This fraction is 3.2 times higher than the incidence of AGN in extended star-forming galaxies with similar masses at these redshifts. This difference is significant at the 6.2s level. Our results are consistent with models in which cSFGs are formed through a dissipative contraction that triggers a compact starburst and concurrent growth of the central black hole. We also discuss our findings in the context of cosmological galaxy evolution simulations that require feedback energy to rapidly quench cSFGs. We show that the AGN fraction peaks precisely where energy injection is needed to reproduce the decline in the number density of cSFGs with redshift. Our results suggest that the first abundant population of massive quenched galaxies emerged directly following a phase of elevated supermassive black hole growth and further hints at a possible connection between AGN and the rapid quenching of star formation in these galaxies.

KW - galaxies: active

KW - galaxies: evolution

KW - X-rays: galaxies

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