In the past decade, the rapid development of portable electronic devices, electric vehicles and electrical devices has stimulated extensive interests in fundamental research and commercialization of electrochemical energy storage systems. Biomass‐derived carbon has garnered significant research attention as an efficient, inexpensive and eco‐friendly active material for energy storage systems. Therefore, high‐performance carbonaceous materials, derived from renewable sources, have been utilized as electrode materials in sodium‐ion batteries and sodium‐ion capacitors. In this review, we summarize the charge storage mechanism and utilization of biomass‐derived carbon for sodium storage in batteries and capacitors. In particular, the structure‐performance relationship of biomass‐derived carbon for sodium storage in the form of batteries and capacitors is discussed. Despite the fact that further research is required to optimize the process and application of biomass‐derived carbon in energy storage devices, the current review demonstrates the potential of carbonaceous materials for next‐generation sodium‐involved energy storage applications.