Bilevel economic operation of distribution networks with microgrid integration

Hong Zhang, Dongmei Zhao, Chenghong Gu, Furong Li

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Traditionally, the economic operation of a microgrid (MG) is independent with that of a distribution network (DN), and the electricity trade between them is simply based on contract prices or wholesale electricity market prices. In order to coordinate the benefits of DNs and MGs more effectively, a new economic operation model for DNs with MG is proposed in this paper modeled as a bilevel programming problem (BLPP). At the upper level, electric power from the gird and electricity price of MGs are control variables. A DN seeks the least operation cost by optimizing these control variables. At the lower level, control variables are electric power of dispatchable distributed generations (DGs) and the DN. Based on the electricity price got from the upper level and the operation costs of dispatchable DGs, a MG minimizes its hourly operation cost by optimizing the control variables. Furthermore, electricity price constraints are considered in this BLPP model, and a method to dynamically determine the constraints is proposed. They are decided by the load power demand profile in the DN and the price differential between the wholesale electricity market and dispatchable DGs. A comprehensive real-time pricing for residential consumers is also considered in the operation model to study the impact from demand response. The proposed BLPP model is solved by particles swarm optimization based on bilevel iterative algorithm. The demonstration is performed on a modified IEEE 33-node radial distribution system.

Original languageEnglish
Article number023120
JournalJournal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy
Issue number2
Early online date15 Apr 2015
Publication statusPublished - 15 Apr 2015


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