Beyond 17% stable perovskite solar module via polaron arrangement of tuned polymeric hole transport layer

Narges Yaghoobi Nia, Mahmoud Zendehdel, Mojtaba Abdi-Jalebi, Luigi Angelo Castriotta, Felix U. Kosasih, Enrico Lamanna, Mohammad Mahdi Abolhasani, Zhaoxiang Zheng, Zahra Andaji-Garmaroudi, Kamal Asadi, Giorgio Divitini, Caterina Ducati, Richard H. Friend, Aldo Di Carlo

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Operational stability of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) is rapidly becoming one of the pressing bottlenecks for their upscaling and integration of such promising photovoltaic technology. Instability of the hole transport layer (HTL) has been considered as one of the potential origins of short life-time of the PSCs. In this work, by varying the molecular weight (MW) of doped poly(triarylamine)(PTAA) HTL, we improved by one order of magnitude the charge mobility inside the HTL and the charge transfer at the perovskite/HTL interface. We demonstrate that this occurs via the enhancement of polaron delocalization on the polymeric chains through the combined effect of doping strategy and MW tuning. By using high MW PTAA doped combining three different dopant, we demonstrate stable PSCs with typical power conversion efficiencies above 20%, retain more than 90% of the initial efficiency after 1080 h thermal stress at 85 °C and 87% of initial efficiency after 160 h exposure against 1 sun light soaking. By using this doping-MW strategy, we realized perovskite solar modules with an efficiency of 17% on an active area of 43 cm2, keeping above 90% of the initial efficiency after 800 h thermal stress at 85 °C. These results, obtained in ambient conditions, pave the way toward the industrialization of PSC-based photovoltaic technology.

Original languageEnglish
Article number105685
JournalNano Energy
Early online date15 Dec 2020
Publication statusPublished - 30 Apr 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
N.Y.N and A.D.C. gratefully acknowledge the European Union's Horizon 2020 Framework Program for funding Research and Innovation under Grant agreement No. 764047 (ESPRESSO). A.D.C. gratefully acknowledge the financial support from the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation in the framework of MegaGrant (No. 075-15-2019-872 ( 14.Y26.31.0027/074-02-2018-327 )). L.A.C. would like to acknowledge the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Skłodowska – Curie grant agreement No. 764787 (MAESTRO). K.A. and M.M.A. acknowledge the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation for the funding provided in the framework of the Sofja Kovalevskaja Award, endowed by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research, Germany and the Max-Planck Institute for Polymer Research for technical support. M.A.-J. thanks Cambridge Materials Limited , Wolfson College, University of Cambridge , the Royal Society and the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) for their funding and technical support. Z.A.‐G. acknowledges funding from a Winton Studentship, and ICON Studentship from the Lloyd's Register Foundation . F.U.K. thanks the Jardine Foundation and Cambridge Trust for a doctoral scholarship. R.H.F. and M.A.-J. acknowledge support from EPSRC (grant no. EP/M005143/1 ).

Funding Information:
Mohammad Mahdi Abolhasani received the Ph.D. degree in polymer engineering from Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.Then, he joined the University of Kashan, Iran, as an Assistant Professor. His work at Kashan was focused on the investigation of piezoelectric performance of PVDF films and fibers. In 2014, he did a Postdoctoral with Deakin University, Australia. In 2016, he received a fellowship from the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation for a project on high-K ferroelectric polymers for energy storage applications. He is currently a Postdoctoral Researcher with Max-Planck institute for polymer research, Germany.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 Elsevier Ltd

Copyright 2020 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.


  • Molecular weight
  • Perovskite photovoltaic modules
  • Polaron
  • PTAA
  • Stability

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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