Behaviour change interventions for the management of Raynaud's Phenomenon: a systematic literature review

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DesignSystematic literature review and narrative synthesis of findings.Data sources EMBASE, MEDLINE, Cochrane and PsycINFO were searched for eligible studies on 22 August 2017.Eligibility criteriaRandomised controlled trials (RCTs) of behaviour change interventions with at least one control comparator arm.Data extraction and synthesisStudy selection, data extraction and risk of bias were assessed independently by two reviewers, reaching consensus with a third when necessary. Primary outcomes of interest included severity/impact, frequency and duration of RP episodes, pain, disability, adverse events and study withdrawal.ResultsOf 638 articles retrieved, eight studies fulfilled criteria for inclusion. Biofeedback was the active behaviour change treatment arm for seven studies, with one study reporting a behavioural intervention. Studies were published 1978–2002; six were USA-based studies, one German and one Swedish. Using Cochrane Risk of Bias assessment, studies were assessed to be overall at high risk of bias, with the exception of one large RCT. The total sample included 495 participants (study median=29), with a median age of 39.5 years and preponderance towards females (73%). Five studies reported significant effects in primary outcomes of interest; however, due to missing data, relative efficacy of interventions could not be reliably assessed.Conclusions There is no evidence to support or refute claims of the efficacy of behaviour change interventions for the management of RP. There remains a strong case for developing and testing behaviour change interventions that focus on self-management; however, theoretical development and advancement in trial quality is imperative to underpin future work.PROSPERO registration number CRD42017049643.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere024528
Pages (from-to)1-12
Number of pages12
JournalBMJ Open
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2018


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