Azetidinium lead iodide for perovskite solar cells

S. R. Pering, W. Deng, J. R. Troughton, P. S. Kubiak, D. Ghosh, R. G. Niemann, F. Brivio, F. E. Jeffrey, A. B. Walker, M. S. Islam, T. M. Watson, P. R. Raithby, A. L. Johnson, S. E. Lewis, P. J. Cameron

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

11 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Hybrid organic–inorganic perovskites have been established as good candidate materials for emerging photovoltaics, with device efficiencies of over 22% being reported. There are currently only two organic cations, methylammonium and formamidinium, which produce 3D perovskites with band gaps suitable for photovoltaic devices. Numerous computational studies have identified azetidinium as a potential third cation for synthesizing organic–inorganic perovskites, but to date no experimental reports of azetidinium containing perovskites have been published. Here we prepare azetidinium lead iodide for the first time. Azetidinium lead iodide is a stable, bright orange material which does not appear to form a 3D or a 2D perovskite. It was successfully used as the absorber layer in solar cells. We also show that it is possible to make mixed cation devices by adding the azetidinium cation to methylammonium lead iodide. Computational studies show that the substitution of up to 5% azetidinium into the methylammonium lead iodide is energetically favourable and that phase separation does not occur at these concentrations. Mixed azetidinium–methylammonium cells show improved performance and reduced hysteresis compared to methylammonium lead iodide cells.
LanguageEnglish
Pages20658-20665
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Materials Chemistry A
Volume5
Issue number39
Early online date20 Sep 2017
DOIs
StatusPublished - 21 Oct 2017

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Iodides
Positive ions
Cations
Lead
Phase separation
Perovskite
Hysteresis
Solar cells
Energy gap
Substitution reactions
Perovskite solar cells
methylamine

Keywords

  • Azetidinium
  • perovskite
  • Solar cells
  • Thin Films

Cite this

Azetidinium lead iodide for perovskite solar cells. / Pering, S. R.; Deng, W.; Troughton, J. R.; Kubiak, P. S.; Ghosh, D.; Niemann, R. G.; Brivio, F.; Jeffrey, F. E.; Walker, A. B.; Islam, M. S.; Watson, T. M.; Raithby, P. R.; Johnson, A. L.; Lewis, S. E.; Cameron, P. J.

In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, Vol. 5, No. 39, 21.10.2017, p. 20658-20665.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Pering, S. R. ; Deng, W. ; Troughton, J. R. ; Kubiak, P. S. ; Ghosh, D. ; Niemann, R. G. ; Brivio, F. ; Jeffrey, F. E. ; Walker, A. B. ; Islam, M. S. ; Watson, T. M. ; Raithby, P. R. ; Johnson, A. L. ; Lewis, S. E. ; Cameron, P. J. / Azetidinium lead iodide for perovskite solar cells. In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A. 2017 ; Vol. 5, No. 39. pp. 20658-20665.
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