Axial flux permanent magnet motors have attracted increasing attention due to their compact topology and high torque density. Many topological variations have arisen over time; however, limited research has directly compared the differences in magnetic performance of these topologies. This paper carries out a comprehensive investigation, employing both analytical and 3D finite element analyses, to compare the magnetic performance of three topologies: yokeless and segmented armature (YASA), axial flux internal rotor (AFIR), and offset AFIR. The findings reveal that each topology offers specific advantages for different applications. The YASA topology excels in minimizing core losses; the AFIR configuration achieves the highest torque density; and the offset AFIR topology shows the highest efficiency. The offset AFIR topology appears to offer advantages for a wide array of applications due to its higher power factor and lower permanent magnet loss, leading to reduced costs for converter design and cooling system design.
Original languageEnglish
Article number401
Issue number2
Early online date13 Jan 2024
Publication statusPublished - 13 Jan 2024


  • axial flux permanent magnet motor topology
  • efficiency
  • torque density
  • winding harmonic cancellation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Optimization
  • Energy (miscellaneous)
  • Engineering (miscellaneous)
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Fuel Technology
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment


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