Attitude toward protest uniquely predicts (normative and nonnormative) political action by (advantaged and disadvantaged) group members

Joseph Sweetman, Gregory Maio, Russell Spears, Antony Manstead, Andrew G. Livingstone

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Citations (SciVal)


We find evidence that explicit (but not implicit) measures of general attitude towards protest uniquely predict normative and nonnormative political action tendencies, and behavior, over and above extant models of political action. Protest attitude uniquely predicts both the political action tendencies of members of disadvantaged groups and willingness to engage in solidarity-based action on behalf of such groups. Furthermore, we find some evidence that protest attitude is able to account for the effects of mobilization messages over a political issue; these messages increase political action tendencies by making attitude towards protest more positive. The results indicate that overall attitude toward protest reflects a wide array of affective, cognitive, and behavioral factors associated with protest that more specific, established predictors of collective political action do not tap. As such, general protest attitude offers an important addition to extant models of collective political action and efforts to examine the psychological processes underpinning political cognition and action.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)115-128
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Experimental Social Psychology
Early online date13 Feb 2019
Publication statusPublished - 31 May 2019


  • Attitudes
  • Collective political action
  • Expectancy-value
  • Implicit social cognition
  • Nonnormative action
  • Social identity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Psychology
  • Sociology and Political Science


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