Attentional bias and treatment adherence in substitute-prescribed opiate users

M Charles, C E Wellington, C Mokrysz, T P Freeman, D O'Ryan, H V Curran

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

6 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Attentional bias (AB) is implicated in the development and maintenance of substance dependence and in treatment outcome. We assessed the effects of attentional bias modification (ABM), and the relationship between AB and treatment adherence in opiate dependent patients.

METHOD: An independent groups design was used to compare 23 opiate dependent patients with 21 healthy controls. Participants completed an AB task before either a control or an ABM task designed to train attention away from substance-related stimuli. Pre- and post-ABM AB and craving were assessed to determine any changes. Relationships between treatment adherence ('using on top' of prescribed opiates or not) and AB, craving and psychopathology were also examined.

RESULTS: There was no baseline difference in AB between patients and controls, and no significant effect of ABM on AB or substance craving. However, treatment adherent patients who did not use illicit opiates on top of their prescribed opiates had statistically significantly greater AB away from substance-related stimuli than both participants using on top and controls, and reported significantly lower levels of craving than non-treatment adherent patients.

CONCLUSION: Whilst we did not find any significant effects of ABM on AB or craving, patients who were treatment adherent differed from both those who were not and from controls in their attentional functioning and substance craving. These findings are the first to suggest that AB may be a within-treatment factor predictive of adherence to pharmacological treatment and potentially of recovery in opiate users.

LanguageEnglish
Pages100-105
Number of pages6
JournalAddictive Behaviors
Volume46
Early online date24 Mar 2015
DOIs
StatusPublished - 1 Jul 2015

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Opiate Alkaloids
Therapeutics
Patient treatment
Attentional Bias
Recovery

Keywords

  • Analysis of Variance
  • Attention
  • Buprenorphine/therapeutic use
  • Craving
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Impulsive Behavior
  • Male
  • Medication Adherence/psychology
  • Methadone/therapeutic use
  • Middle Aged
  • Narcotics/therapeutic use
  • Opiate Substitution Treatment/methods
  • Opioid-Related Disorders/psychology
  • Psychotherapy/methods
  • Surveys and Questionnaires

Cite this

Attentional bias and treatment adherence in substitute-prescribed opiate users. / Charles, M; Wellington, C E; Mokrysz, C; Freeman, T P; O'Ryan, D; Curran, H V.

In: Addictive Behaviors, Vol. 46, 01.07.2015, p. 100-105.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Charles, M ; Wellington, C E ; Mokrysz, C ; Freeman, T P ; O'Ryan, D ; Curran, H V. / Attentional bias and treatment adherence in substitute-prescribed opiate users. In: Addictive Behaviors. 2015 ; Vol. 46. pp. 100-105.
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abstract = "BACKGROUND: Attentional bias (AB) is implicated in the development and maintenance of substance dependence and in treatment outcome. We assessed the effects of attentional bias modification (ABM), and the relationship between AB and treatment adherence in opiate dependent patients.METHOD: An independent groups design was used to compare 23 opiate dependent patients with 21 healthy controls. Participants completed an AB task before either a control or an ABM task designed to train attention away from substance-related stimuli. Pre- and post-ABM AB and craving were assessed to determine any changes. Relationships between treatment adherence ('using on top' of prescribed opiates or not) and AB, craving and psychopathology were also examined.RESULTS: There was no baseline difference in AB between patients and controls, and no significant effect of ABM on AB or substance craving. However, treatment adherent patients who did not use illicit opiates on top of their prescribed opiates had statistically significantly greater AB away from substance-related stimuli than both participants using on top and controls, and reported significantly lower levels of craving than non-treatment adherent patients.CONCLUSION: Whilst we did not find any significant effects of ABM on AB or craving, patients who were treatment adherent differed from both those who were not and from controls in their attentional functioning and substance craving. These findings are the first to suggest that AB may be a within-treatment factor predictive of adherence to pharmacological treatment and potentially of recovery in opiate users.",
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AU - Charles, M

AU - Wellington, C E

AU - Mokrysz, C

AU - Freeman, T P

AU - O'Ryan, D

AU - Curran, H V

N1 - Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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N2 - BACKGROUND: Attentional bias (AB) is implicated in the development and maintenance of substance dependence and in treatment outcome. We assessed the effects of attentional bias modification (ABM), and the relationship between AB and treatment adherence in opiate dependent patients.METHOD: An independent groups design was used to compare 23 opiate dependent patients with 21 healthy controls. Participants completed an AB task before either a control or an ABM task designed to train attention away from substance-related stimuli. Pre- and post-ABM AB and craving were assessed to determine any changes. Relationships between treatment adherence ('using on top' of prescribed opiates or not) and AB, craving and psychopathology were also examined.RESULTS: There was no baseline difference in AB between patients and controls, and no significant effect of ABM on AB or substance craving. However, treatment adherent patients who did not use illicit opiates on top of their prescribed opiates had statistically significantly greater AB away from substance-related stimuli than both participants using on top and controls, and reported significantly lower levels of craving than non-treatment adherent patients.CONCLUSION: Whilst we did not find any significant effects of ABM on AB or craving, patients who were treatment adherent differed from both those who were not and from controls in their attentional functioning and substance craving. These findings are the first to suggest that AB may be a within-treatment factor predictive of adherence to pharmacological treatment and potentially of recovery in opiate users.

AB - BACKGROUND: Attentional bias (AB) is implicated in the development and maintenance of substance dependence and in treatment outcome. We assessed the effects of attentional bias modification (ABM), and the relationship between AB and treatment adherence in opiate dependent patients.METHOD: An independent groups design was used to compare 23 opiate dependent patients with 21 healthy controls. Participants completed an AB task before either a control or an ABM task designed to train attention away from substance-related stimuli. Pre- and post-ABM AB and craving were assessed to determine any changes. Relationships between treatment adherence ('using on top' of prescribed opiates or not) and AB, craving and psychopathology were also examined.RESULTS: There was no baseline difference in AB between patients and controls, and no significant effect of ABM on AB or substance craving. However, treatment adherent patients who did not use illicit opiates on top of their prescribed opiates had statistically significantly greater AB away from substance-related stimuli than both participants using on top and controls, and reported significantly lower levels of craving than non-treatment adherent patients.CONCLUSION: Whilst we did not find any significant effects of ABM on AB or craving, patients who were treatment adherent differed from both those who were not and from controls in their attentional functioning and substance craving. These findings are the first to suggest that AB may be a within-treatment factor predictive of adherence to pharmacological treatment and potentially of recovery in opiate users.

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KW - Craving

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KW - Methadone/therapeutic use

KW - Middle Aged

KW - Narcotics/therapeutic use

KW - Opiate Substitution Treatment/methods

KW - Opioid-Related Disorders/psychology

KW - Psychotherapy/methods

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