Associations between cigarette smoking and cannabis dependence: a longitudinal study of young cannabis users in the United Kingdom

Chandni Hindocha, Natacha D C Shaban, Tom P Freeman, Ravi K Das, Grace Gale, Grainne Schafer, Caroline J Falconer, Celia J A Morgan, H Valerie Curran

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

32 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

AIMS: To determine the degree to which cigarette smoking predicts levels of cannabis dependence above and beyond cannabis use itself, concurrently and in an exploratory four-year follow-up, and to investigate whether cigarette smoking mediates the relationship between cannabis use and cannabis dependence.

METHODS: The study was cross sectional with an exploratory follow-up in the participants' own homes or via telephone interviews in the United Kingdom. Participants were 298 cannabis and tobacco users aged between 16 and 23; follow-up consisted of 65 cannabis and tobacco users. The primary outcome variable was cannabis dependence as measured by the Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS). Cannabis and tobacco smoking were assessed through a self-reported drug history.

RESULTS: Regression analyses at baseline showed cigarette smoking (frequency of cigarette smoking: B=0.029, 95% CI=0.01, 0.05; years of cigarette smoking: B=0.159, 95% CI=0.05, 0.27) accounted for 29% of the variance in cannabis dependence when controlling for frequency of cannabis use. At follow-up, only baseline cannabis dependence predicted follow-up cannabis dependence (B=0.274, 95% CI=0.05, 0.53). At baseline, cigarette smoking mediated the relationship between frequency of cannabis use and dependence (B=0.0168, 95% CI=0.008, 0.288) even when controlling for possible confounding variables (B=0.0153, 95% CI=0.007, 0.027).

CONCLUSIONS: Cigarette smoking is related to concurrent cannabis dependence independently of cannabis use frequency. Cigarette smoking also mediates the relationship between cannabis use and cannabis dependence suggesting tobacco is a partial driver of cannabis dependence in young people who use cannabis and tobacco.

LanguageEnglish
Pages165-171
Number of pages7
JournalDrug and Alcohol Dependence
Volume148
Early online date13 Jan 2015
DOIs
StatusPublished - 1 Mar 2015

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Marijuana Abuse
Cannabis
Tobacco Products
Longitudinal Studies
Smoking
Tobacco
Marijuana Smoking
United Kingdom
Confounding Factors (Epidemiology)
Tobacco Use
Cross-Sectional Studies
History
Regression Analysis

Keywords

  • Adolescent
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Male
  • Marijuana Abuse/diagnosis
  • Smoking/epidemiology
  • United Kingdom/epidemiology
  • Young Adult

Cite this

Associations between cigarette smoking and cannabis dependence : a longitudinal study of young cannabis users in the United Kingdom. / Hindocha, Chandni; Shaban, Natacha D C; Freeman, Tom P; Das, Ravi K; Gale, Grace; Schafer, Grainne; Falconer, Caroline J; Morgan, Celia J A; Curran, H Valerie.

In: Drug and Alcohol Dependence, Vol. 148, 01.03.2015, p. 165-171.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Hindocha, Chandni ; Shaban, Natacha D C ; Freeman, Tom P ; Das, Ravi K ; Gale, Grace ; Schafer, Grainne ; Falconer, Caroline J ; Morgan, Celia J A ; Curran, H Valerie. / Associations between cigarette smoking and cannabis dependence : a longitudinal study of young cannabis users in the United Kingdom. In: Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 2015 ; Vol. 148. pp. 165-171.
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abstract = "AIMS: To determine the degree to which cigarette smoking predicts levels of cannabis dependence above and beyond cannabis use itself, concurrently and in an exploratory four-year follow-up, and to investigate whether cigarette smoking mediates the relationship between cannabis use and cannabis dependence.METHODS: The study was cross sectional with an exploratory follow-up in the participants' own homes or via telephone interviews in the United Kingdom. Participants were 298 cannabis and tobacco users aged between 16 and 23; follow-up consisted of 65 cannabis and tobacco users. The primary outcome variable was cannabis dependence as measured by the Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS). Cannabis and tobacco smoking were assessed through a self-reported drug history.RESULTS: Regression analyses at baseline showed cigarette smoking (frequency of cigarette smoking: B=0.029, 95{\%} CI=0.01, 0.05; years of cigarette smoking: B=0.159, 95{\%} CI=0.05, 0.27) accounted for 29{\%} of the variance in cannabis dependence when controlling for frequency of cannabis use. At follow-up, only baseline cannabis dependence predicted follow-up cannabis dependence (B=0.274, 95{\%} CI=0.05, 0.53). At baseline, cigarette smoking mediated the relationship between frequency of cannabis use and dependence (B=0.0168, 95{\%} CI=0.008, 0.288) even when controlling for possible confounding variables (B=0.0153, 95{\%} CI=0.007, 0.027).CONCLUSIONS: Cigarette smoking is related to concurrent cannabis dependence independently of cannabis use frequency. Cigarette smoking also mediates the relationship between cannabis use and cannabis dependence suggesting tobacco is a partial driver of cannabis dependence in young people who use cannabis and tobacco.",
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T1 - Associations between cigarette smoking and cannabis dependence

T2 - Drug and Alcohol Dependence

AU - Hindocha, Chandni

AU - Shaban, Natacha D C

AU - Freeman, Tom P

AU - Das, Ravi K

AU - Gale, Grace

AU - Schafer, Grainne

AU - Falconer, Caroline J

AU - Morgan, Celia J A

AU - Curran, H Valerie

N1 - Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

PY - 2015/3/1

Y1 - 2015/3/1

N2 - AIMS: To determine the degree to which cigarette smoking predicts levels of cannabis dependence above and beyond cannabis use itself, concurrently and in an exploratory four-year follow-up, and to investigate whether cigarette smoking mediates the relationship between cannabis use and cannabis dependence.METHODS: The study was cross sectional with an exploratory follow-up in the participants' own homes or via telephone interviews in the United Kingdom. Participants were 298 cannabis and tobacco users aged between 16 and 23; follow-up consisted of 65 cannabis and tobacco users. The primary outcome variable was cannabis dependence as measured by the Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS). Cannabis and tobacco smoking were assessed through a self-reported drug history.RESULTS: Regression analyses at baseline showed cigarette smoking (frequency of cigarette smoking: B=0.029, 95% CI=0.01, 0.05; years of cigarette smoking: B=0.159, 95% CI=0.05, 0.27) accounted for 29% of the variance in cannabis dependence when controlling for frequency of cannabis use. At follow-up, only baseline cannabis dependence predicted follow-up cannabis dependence (B=0.274, 95% CI=0.05, 0.53). At baseline, cigarette smoking mediated the relationship between frequency of cannabis use and dependence (B=0.0168, 95% CI=0.008, 0.288) even when controlling for possible confounding variables (B=0.0153, 95% CI=0.007, 0.027).CONCLUSIONS: Cigarette smoking is related to concurrent cannabis dependence independently of cannabis use frequency. Cigarette smoking also mediates the relationship between cannabis use and cannabis dependence suggesting tobacco is a partial driver of cannabis dependence in young people who use cannabis and tobacco.

AB - AIMS: To determine the degree to which cigarette smoking predicts levels of cannabis dependence above and beyond cannabis use itself, concurrently and in an exploratory four-year follow-up, and to investigate whether cigarette smoking mediates the relationship between cannabis use and cannabis dependence.METHODS: The study was cross sectional with an exploratory follow-up in the participants' own homes or via telephone interviews in the United Kingdom. Participants were 298 cannabis and tobacco users aged between 16 and 23; follow-up consisted of 65 cannabis and tobacco users. The primary outcome variable was cannabis dependence as measured by the Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS). Cannabis and tobacco smoking were assessed through a self-reported drug history.RESULTS: Regression analyses at baseline showed cigarette smoking (frequency of cigarette smoking: B=0.029, 95% CI=0.01, 0.05; years of cigarette smoking: B=0.159, 95% CI=0.05, 0.27) accounted for 29% of the variance in cannabis dependence when controlling for frequency of cannabis use. At follow-up, only baseline cannabis dependence predicted follow-up cannabis dependence (B=0.274, 95% CI=0.05, 0.53). At baseline, cigarette smoking mediated the relationship between frequency of cannabis use and dependence (B=0.0168, 95% CI=0.008, 0.288) even when controlling for possible confounding variables (B=0.0153, 95% CI=0.007, 0.027).CONCLUSIONS: Cigarette smoking is related to concurrent cannabis dependence independently of cannabis use frequency. Cigarette smoking also mediates the relationship between cannabis use and cannabis dependence suggesting tobacco is a partial driver of cannabis dependence in young people who use cannabis and tobacco.

KW - Adolescent

KW - Cross-Sectional Studies

KW - Female

KW - Follow-Up Studies

KW - Humans

KW - Longitudinal Studies

KW - Male

KW - Marijuana Abuse/diagnosis

KW - Smoking/epidemiology

KW - United Kingdom/epidemiology

KW - Young Adult

U2 - 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2015.01.004

DO - 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2015.01.004

M3 - Article

VL - 148

SP - 165

EP - 171

JO - Drug and Alcohol Dependence

JF - Drug and Alcohol Dependence

SN - 0376-8716

ER -