Association patterns and shoal fidelity in the three-spined stickleback

Ashley J. Ward, Marc S. Botham, Daniel J. Hoare, Richard James, Mark Broom, Jean-Guy J. Godin, Jens Krause

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81 Citations (SciVal)


We investigated pairwise association patterns and shoal fidelity in free-ranging, individual three-spine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) by capturing entire shoals of sticklebacks and tagging each shoal member with a unique individual mark before releasing the shoal at the point of capture. We recaptured tagged fishes in the study area on five subsequent days, noting their identity, their location and the individuals with which they were associated. Stable partner associations between fishes were observed which might provide the basis for shoal fidelity via social networks. These results suggest the potential for the kinds of inter-individual association patterns assumed by models of predator inspection and 'tit-for-tat' behaviours in free-ranging fishes.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2451-2455
Number of pages5
JournalProceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
Issue number1508
Publication statusPublished - 2002

Bibliographical note

ID number: ISI:000180108400010


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