The main bactericidal components of cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) are thought to be reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) and UV-radiation, both of which have the capacity to cause DNA damage and mutations. Here, the mutagenic effects of CAP on Escherichia coli were assessed in comparison to X- and UV-irradiation. DNA damage and mutagenesis were screened for using a diffusion-based DNA fragmentation assay and modified Ames test, respectively. Mutant colonies obtained from the latter were quantitated and sequenced. CAP was found to elicit a similar mutation spectrum to X-irradiation, which did not resemble that for UV implying that CAP-produced RONS are more likely the mutagenic component of CAP. CAP treatment was also shown to promote resistance to the antibiotic ciprofloxacin. Our data suggest that CAP treatment has mutagenic effects that may have important phenotypic consequences.