Currently, the determination of health risks to pesticide applicators from dermal exposure to these chemicals is assessed using either a concentrate of the compound or a relevant aqueous dilution. Neither of these conditions reflects a normal exposure of an individual when re-entering an area after pesticide application, that is, contact with dried residue of the diluted product on foliage. Methodology has therefore been developed to determine a relevant estimate of this potential dermal re-entry exposure from pesticide residues. Potential delivery platforms have been characterized for the transfer of pesticide residue to skin. Spin coating has been used to deposit uniform pesticide layers on to each platform. Five pesticides have been chosen to encompass a wide range of physicochemical properties: atrazine, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), chlorpyrifos, monocrotophos, and acetochlor. In vitro (Franz diffusion cell) experiments have been performed to monitor the transfer of these pesticides from the delivery platforms onto and through excised porcine skin. Parallel experiments were also conducted with aqueous pesticide dilutions for comparison, and a final in vivo measurement using ibuprofen (as a model compound) complemented the in vitro data. The results demonstrate that transfer of chemical residue onto and subsequently through the skin is dependent on the physical attributes of the residue formed. Thus, assessing dermal exposure to pesticides based on skin contact with either the chemical concentrate or a relevant aqueous dilution may incorrectly estimate the risk for re-entry scenarios.
Belsey, N. A., Cordery, S. F., Bunge, A. L., & Guy, R. H. (2011). Assessment of dermal exposure to pesticide residues during re-entry. Environmental Science & Technology, 45(10), 4609-4615. https://doi.org/10.1021/es200172q