Assessing the Measurement Invariance of the Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits in School Students in China and the United Kingdom

Jennifer L. Allen, Yiyun Shou, Meng-Cheng Wang, Elisabeth Bird

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


The current study investigated the measurement invariance of the Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits in school-attending youth in the UK (N = 437) and China (N = 364). The original 24-item ICU and five shortened versions proposed in previous studies were tested and compared using confirmatory factor analysis in the UK sample. Results indicated that the original ICU was a poor fit in the UK sample. A shortened, 11-item version (ICU-11) featuring two factors (Callousness and Uncaring) provided the best fit and was invariant across gender in both the UK and Chinese samples. Comparisons of the ICU-11 in UK and Chinese school children revealed a similar item-factor combination and factor loadings, but different item thresholds. Findings indicate that the ICU-11 may be a preferable alternative to the original version, but that average ICU-11 scores may have a different meaning in the UK and China.
Original languageEnglish
JournalChild Psychiatry and Human Development
Publication statusAcceptance date - 16 Jun 2020


  • callous-unemotional traits
  • psychopathy
  • gender
  • measurement invariance
  • factor structure

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