Assessing the Feasibility of a Cold Start Procedure for Solid State Batteries in Automotive Applications

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3 Citations (SciVal)


This paper addresses the thermal management of a solid polymer electrolyte battery system, which is currently the only commercialized solid-state battery chemistry. These batteries aim to increase the range of electric vehicles by facilitating a lithium metal anode but are limited by operational temperatures above 60 °C. The feasibility of a cold start procedure is examined, which would enable a solid polymer battery to be used, without preconditioning, in a wide variety of ambient temperatures. The proposed solution involves dividing the solid-state battery into smaller sub-packs, which can be heated and brought online more quickly. Thermal modelling shows a cold start procedure is theoretically feasible when using a small liquid electrolyte lithium battery at the start. The key bottlenecks are the rate at which the solid-state batteries can be heated, and the discharge rates they can provide. After resistive heating is used for the first solid-state module, all subsequent heating can be provided by waste heat from the motor and operating battery modules. Due to the insulation required, the proposed system has lower volumetric, but higher gravimetric energy density than liquid electrolyte systems. This work suggests that with suitable system-level design, solid-state batteries could be widely adopted despite temperature constraints.
Original languageEnglish
Article number13
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 5 Feb 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Acknowledgments: R.H. is supported by a scholarship from the EPSRC Centre for Doctoral Training in Advanced Automotive Propulsion Systems (AAPS), under the project EP/S023364/1.


  • Cold start
  • Heating
  • Polymer electrolyte
  • Solid state batteries
  • Thermal management

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Electrochemistry
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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