Are Individualism and “Masculinity” Related When Controlling for Regional Proximity? A Reappraisal of Barry (2015)

Paul G. Bain, Renata Bongiorno

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Barry recently attributed the non-significant relationship between the cultural dimensions of Individualism (IND) and Masculinity (MASC) to a suppression effect of regional differences. Pairing countries on regional proximity, he showed that a strong correlation between these cultural dimensions emerged. However, we point to significant issues with this analysis, including how countries were paired, ordered, and included/excluded, as well as in the cultural meaningfulness of regional proximity. Re-analysis of the data after addressing these issues shows that IND and MASC were not significantly related at a cultural level after controlling for regional proximity, nor after controlling for two other prominent geographic factors: latitude and climate demands. The weight of evidence suggests that IND and MASC are not correlated at a cultural level.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1226-1231
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Cross-Cultural Psychology
Issue number9
Early online date30 Aug 2015
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2015


  • attitudes
  • beliefs
  • cultural dimensions
  • measurement/statistics
  • values

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Psychology
  • Cultural Studies
  • Anthropology

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