Anodised TiO2 nano-tubes: Voltage ramp influence on the nano-structured oxide and investigation of phase changes promoted by thermal treatments

Domenico Regonini, C R Bowen, R Stevens, Duncan Allsopp, A Jaroenworaluck

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

24 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

TiO2 nano-tubes have been generated by anodising commercially pure (99.6%) titanium in a 1 M solution of Na2SO4 which contains a small amount of NaF (0.1-1 wt%). The use of an initial voltage ramp, prior to the application of a constant voltage to the cell, led to an increase in the thickness of the nano-tube layer. The thermal stability of the nano-tube layer has also been evaluated by annealing at a variety of temperatures, from 200 to 600°C Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) of the annealed nano-tubes indicate that they are stable up to 500°C Raman spectroscopy was performed to monitor and evaluate the changes in the crystal structure promoted by the thermal treatments. The as-prepared nano-tubes are amorphous, while anatase begins to form at 300°C and rutile is found at 550°C, a temperature at which the nano-tubes begin to collapse. Initial results obtained by characterising the as-prepared nano-tubes with Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) are also discussed. © 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1814-1819
Number of pages6
JournalPhysica Status Solidi (A)
Volume204
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2007

Fingerprint

ramps
Oxides
Heat treatment
tubes
oxides
Electric potential
electric potential
Titanium dioxide
Raman spectroscopy
Thermodynamic stability
Titanium
Crystal structure
Annealing
Transmission electron microscopy
Temperature
Scanning electron microscopy
titanium dioxide
anatase
rutile
thermal stability

Keywords

  • Scanning electron microscopy
  • Anodic oxidation
  • Titanium dioxide
  • Thermodynamic stability
  • Nanotubes
  • Transmission electron microscopy
  • Crystal structure
  • Nanostructured materials

Cite this

Anodised TiO2 nano-tubes: Voltage ramp influence on the nano-structured oxide and investigation of phase changes promoted by thermal treatments. / Regonini, Domenico; Bowen, C R; Stevens, R; Allsopp, Duncan; Jaroenworaluck, A.

In: Physica Status Solidi (A), Vol. 204, No. 6, 2007, p. 1814-1819.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "TiO2 nano-tubes have been generated by anodising commercially pure (99.6{\%}) titanium in a 1 M solution of Na2SO4 which contains a small amount of NaF (0.1-1 wt{\%}). The use of an initial voltage ramp, prior to the application of a constant voltage to the cell, led to an increase in the thickness of the nano-tube layer. The thermal stability of the nano-tube layer has also been evaluated by annealing at a variety of temperatures, from 200 to 600°C Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) of the annealed nano-tubes indicate that they are stable up to 500°C Raman spectroscopy was performed to monitor and evaluate the changes in the crystal structure promoted by the thermal treatments. The as-prepared nano-tubes are amorphous, while anatase begins to form at 300°C and rutile is found at 550°C, a temperature at which the nano-tubes begin to collapse. Initial results obtained by characterising the as-prepared nano-tubes with Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) are also discussed. {\circledC} 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA.",
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AB - TiO2 nano-tubes have been generated by anodising commercially pure (99.6%) titanium in a 1 M solution of Na2SO4 which contains a small amount of NaF (0.1-1 wt%). The use of an initial voltage ramp, prior to the application of a constant voltage to the cell, led to an increase in the thickness of the nano-tube layer. The thermal stability of the nano-tube layer has also been evaluated by annealing at a variety of temperatures, from 200 to 600°C Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) of the annealed nano-tubes indicate that they are stable up to 500°C Raman spectroscopy was performed to monitor and evaluate the changes in the crystal structure promoted by the thermal treatments. The as-prepared nano-tubes are amorphous, while anatase begins to form at 300°C and rutile is found at 550°C, a temperature at which the nano-tubes begin to collapse. Initial results obtained by characterising the as-prepared nano-tubes with Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) are also discussed. © 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA.

KW - Scanning electron microscopy

KW - Anodic oxidation

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KW - Thermodynamic stability

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KW - Transmission electron microscopy

KW - Crystal structure

KW - Nanostructured materials

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