Analysis of DNA methylation at birth and in childhood reveals changes associated with season of birth and latitude

PACE consortium

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BACKGROUND: Seasonal variations in environmental exposures at birth or during gestation are associated with numerous adult traits and health outcomes later in life. Whether DNA methylation (DNAm) plays a role in the molecular mechanisms underlying the associations between birth season and lifelong phenotypes remains unclear.

METHODS: We carried out epigenome-wide meta-analyses within the Pregnancy And Childhood Epigenetic Consortium to identify associations of DNAm with birth season, both at differentially methylated probes (DMPs) and regions (DMRs). Associations were examined at two time points: at birth (21 cohorts, N = 9358) and in children aged 1-11 years (12 cohorts, N = 3610). We conducted meta-analyses to assess the impact of latitude on birth season-specific associations at both time points.

RESULTS: We identified associations between birth season and DNAm (False Discovery Rate-adjusted p values < 0.05) at two CpGs at birth (winter-born) and four in the childhood (summer-born) analyses when compared to children born in autumn. Furthermore, we identified twenty-six differentially methylated regions (DMR) at birth (winter-born: 8, spring-born: 15, summer-born: 3) and thirty-two in childhood (winter-born: 12, spring and summer: 10 each) meta-analyses with few overlapping DMRs between the birth seasons or the two time points. The DMRs were associated with genes of known functions in tumorigenesis, psychiatric/neurological disorders, inflammation, or immunity, amongst others. Latitude-stratified meta-analyses [higher (≥ 50°N), lower (< 50°N, northern hemisphere only)] revealed differences in associations between birth season and DNAm by birth latitude. DMR analysis implicated genes with previously reported links to schizophrenia (LAX1), skin disorders (PSORS1C, LTB4R), and airway inflammation including asthma (LTB4R), present only at birth in the higher latitudes (≥ 50°N).

CONCLUSIONS: In this large epigenome-wide meta-analysis study, we provide evidence for (i) associations between DNAm and season of birth that are unique for the seasons of the year (temporal effect) and (ii) latitude-dependent variations in the seasonal associations (spatial effect). DNAm could play a role in the molecular mechanisms underlying the effect of birth season on adult health outcomes.

Original languageEnglish
Article number148
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 11 Sept 2023

Bibliographical note

The UK Medical Research Council and Wellcome (Grant ref: 217065/Z/19/Z) and the University of Bristol provide core support for ALSPAC. This publication is the work of the authors LK will serve as guarantor for the contents of this paper.
A comprehensive list of grants funding is available on the ALSPAC website ( This research was specifically funded by BBI025751/1 and BB/I025263/1, MC_UU_12013/1 & MC_UU_12013/2 & MC_UU_12013/8. EW is funded by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (EarlyCause, grant nº 848158) and by CLOSER (grant reference: ES/K000357/1). GCS is financially supported by the Medical Research Council [New Investigator Research Grant, MR/S009310/1] and the European Joint Programming Initiative “A Healthy Diet for a Healthy Life” (JPI HDHL, NutriPROGRAM project, UK MRC MR/S036520/1].


  • Birth season
  • DNA methylation
  • Differentially methylated regions (DMR)
  • Latitude
  • Meta-analysis
  • PACE

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics(clinical)
  • Genetics
  • Molecular Biology
  • Developmental Biology


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