Analysis and Classification of Shape-Changing Interfaces for Design and Application-based Research

Miriam Sturdee, Jason Alexander

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

54 Citations (SciVal)
69 Downloads (Pure)


Shape-changing interfaces are physically tangible, interactive devices, surfaces, or spaces that allow for rich, organic, and novel experiences with computational devices. Over the last 15 years, research has produced functional prototypes over many use applications; reviews have identified themes and possible future directions but have not yet looked at possible design or application-based research. Here, we gather this information together to provide a reference for designers and researchers wishing to build upon existing prototyping work, using synthesis and discussion of existing shape-changing interface reviews and comprehensive analysis and classification of 84 shape-changing interfaces. Eight categories of prototype are identified alongsiderecommendations for the field.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2:1-2:32
JournalACM Computing Surveys
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 3 Jan 2018

Bibliographical note

© ACM, 2017. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here for your personal use. Not for redistribution. The definitive Version of Record was published in ACM Computing Surveys (CSUR), 51, 1 2018


  • Shape-changing Interfa
  • TUI
  • GTUI
  • Application Design
  • classification


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