Foundation piles that include geothermal liquid pipes are called “energy piles” and experience significant temperature changes during ground-source heat-pump operations. These temperature changes may affect the bearing capacity of the piles and lead to excessive displacements. Quantifying these effects is still a challenge for ensuring their long-term safety and stability. Several computational methods have been developed to model and predict the thermo-mechanical (TM) response of energy piles. Amongst them, the TM load-transfer (LT) approach assumes a steady-state thermal response and it has been proved to reproduce the observed field behaviour of energy pile tests to a certain extent. A more elaborate approach is the transient coupled TM solid finite element (SFE) analysis which is able to consider more features of the complicated soil-structure interaction problem, such as transient heat propagation, thermal expansion etc. This study presents the effects due to a transient temperature application with different time durations, by adopting the SFE approach. The transient heat propagation consequent to diverse thermal loading scenarios brings to more realistic results with respect to the LT steady-state thermal analysis. Therefore, the outcomes of this study are directly relevant to industry and practising engineers that need practical analysis tools for energy pile design.