Maillard reaction products (MRPs) of protein, amino acids, and reducing sugars from many foods and aqueous extracts of herbs are found to have various bioactivities, including antiviral effects. A hypothesis was proposed that their antiviral activity is due to the interaction with the cellular membrane. Aiming to estimate the possible actions of MRPs on phospholipid bilayers, the Arg-Glc MRPs were prepared by boiling the pre-mixed solution of arginine and glucose for 60 min at 100◦C and then examined at a series of concentrations for their effects on the phase transition of MeDOPE multilamellar vesicles (MLVs), for the first time, by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and temperature-resolved small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Arg-Glc MRPs inhibited the lamellar gel–liquid crystal (Lβ -Lα ), lamellar liquid crystal–cubic (Lα -QII ), and lamellar liquid crystal–inverted hexagonal (Lα-HII) phase transitions at low concentration (molar ratio of lipid vs. MRPs was 100:1 or 100:2), but promoted all three transitions at medium concentration (100:5). At high concentration (10:1), the MRPs exhibited inhibitory effect again. The fusion peptide from simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) induces membrane fusion by promoting the formation of a non-lamellar phase, e.g., cubic (QII) phase, and inhibiting the transition to HII. Arg-Glc MRPs, at low concentration, stabilized the lamellar structure of SIV peptide containing lipid bilayers, but facilitated the formation of non-lamellar phases at medium concentration (100:5). The concentration-dependent activity of MRPs upon lipid phase transition indiciates a potential role in modulating some membrane-related biological events, e.g., viral membrane fusion.