An enhanced epithelial response of a papillomavirus promoter to transcriptional activators

K W Vance, M S Campo, I M Morgan

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19 Citations (SciVal)


Mucosal epitheliotropic papillomaviruses have a similar long control region (LCR) organization: a promoter region, an enhancer region, and a highly conserved distribution of E2 DNA binding sites. The enhancer of these viruses is epithelial-specific, as it fails to activate transcription from heterologous promoters in nonepithelial cell types (Gloss, B., Bernard, H. U., Seedorf, K., and Klock, G. (1987) EMBO J. 6, 3735-3743; Morgan, I. M., Grindlay, G. J., and Campo, M. S. (1999) J. Gen. Virol. 80, 23-27). Studies on E2 transcriptional regulation of the human mucosal epitheliotropic papillomaviruses have been hindered by poor access to the natural target cell type and by the observation that some of the human papillomavirus promoters, including human papillomavirus-16, are repressed in immortalized epithelial cells. Here we present results using the bovine papillomavirus-4 (BPV-4) LCR and a bovine primary cell system as a model to study the mechanism of E2 transcriptional regulation of mucosal epitheliotropic papillomaviruses and the cell type specificity of this regulation. E2 up-regulates transcription from the BPV-4 LCR preferentially in epithelial cells (Morgan, I. M., Grindlay, G. J., and Campo, M. S. (1998) J. Gen. Virol. 79, 501-508). We demonstrate that the epithelial-specific enhancer element of the BPV-4 LCR is not required for the enhanced activity of E2 in epithelial cells and that the BPV-4 promoter is more responsive, not only to E2, but to other transcriptional activators in epithelial cells. This is the first time a level of epithelial specificity has been shown to reside in a papillomavirus promoter region.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)27839-44
Number of pages6
JournalThe Journal of biological chemistry
Issue number39
Publication statusPublished - 24 Sept 1999


  • Animals
  • Base Sequence
  • Bovine papillomavirus 1
  • Bovine papillomavirus 4
  • Cattle
  • Cell Line
  • Conserved Sequence
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Enhancer Elements, Genetic
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Viral
  • Humans
  • Mucous Membrane
  • Oligodeoxyribonucleotides
  • Papillomaviridae
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic
  • Trans-Activators
  • Transcription, Genetic
  • Viral Proteins


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