Allelic variation in the Arabidopsis TNL CHS3/CSA1 immune receptor pair reveals two functional cell-death regulatory modes

Yu Yang, Nak Hyun Kim, Volkan Cevik, Pierre Jacob, Li Wan, Oliver J. Furzer, Jeffery L. Dangl

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Citations (SciVal)


Some plant NLR immune receptors are encoded in head-to-head “sensor-executor” pairs that function together. Alleles of the NLR pair CHS3/CSA1 form three clades. The clade 1 sensor CHS3 contains an integrated domain (ID) with homology to regulatory domains, which is lacking in clades 2 and 3. In this study, we defined two cell-death regulatory modes for CHS3/CSA1 pairs. One is mediated by ID domain on clade 1 CHS3, and the other relies on CHS3/CSA1 pairs from all clades detecting perturbation of an associated pattern-recognition receptor (PRR) co-receptor. Our data support the hypothesis that an ancestral Arabidopsis CHS3/CSA1 pair gained a second recognition specificity and regulatory mechanism through ID acquisition while retaining its original specificity as a “guard” against PRR co-receptor perturbation. This likely comes with a cost, since both ID and non-ID alleles of the pair persist in diverse Arabidopsis populations through balancing selection.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1701-1716.e5
JournalCell Host and Microbe
Issue number12
Early online date17 Oct 2022
Publication statusPublished - 14 Dec 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
We thank Sarah Grant, Farid El-Kasmi, and Marc T. Nishimura for excellent suggestions and comments and Jia Li for providing the bak1-3 bkk1-1 seeds. Supported by National Science Foundation (grant IOS-1758400 to J.L.D.) and HHMI . J.L.D. is a Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) Investigator. N.H.K. was partially supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea Fellowship funded by the Ministry of Education ( 2014R1A6A3A03058629 ). This article is subject to HHMI’s Open Access to Publications policy. HHMI lab heads have previously granted a nonexclusive CC BY 4.0 license to the public and a sublicensable license to HHMI in their research articles. Pursuant to those licenses, the author-accepted manuscript of this article can be made freely available under a CC BY4.0 license immediately upon publication.


  • BAK1
  • CHS3
  • co-evolution
  • CSA1
  • guard hypothesis
  • paired NLR
  • plant immune system
  • specialization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Parasitology
  • Microbiology
  • Virology


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