There is a common opinion that mathematics is difficult for persons with Down syndrome, because of a weakness in numeracy and in abstract thinking. Since 1996, some single case studies have suggested that new opportunities in mathematics are possible for these students: some of them learned algebra and also learned to use equations in problem‐solving. Here an educational study with 15 teenagers with Down syndrome is presented: fractions, percentages, first‐degree equations and problem‐solving with equations were taught and learning was monitored. The students’ performances during the course and in a final test were compared: the students seemed to have learned the new programme and to remember it one month later. They seemed to perform better with equations and problem‐solving with equations than with other more conventional topics. There were no significant differences in the performance of different gender groups.