Alcohol fuels for spark-ignition engines: performance, efficiency and emissions effects at mid to high blend rates for binary mixtures and pure components

James Turner, Andrew Lewis, Sam Akehurst, Christian Brace, S. Verhelst, J. Vancoillie, L. Sileghem, Felix Leach, Peter P. Edwards

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Abstract

The paper evaluates the results of tests performed using mid- and high-level blends of the low-carbon alcohols methanol and ethanol in admixture with gasoline, conducted in a variety of test engines to investigate octane response, efficiency and exhaust emissions, including those for particulate matter. Additionally, pure alcohols are tested in two of the engines, in order to show the maximum response that can be expected in terms of knock limit and efficiency as a result of the beneficial properties of the two alcohols investigated. All of the test work has been conducted with blending of the alcohols and gasoline taking place outside of the combustion system, i.e. the two components are mixed homogeneously before introduction to the fuel system and so the results represent what would happen if the alcohols were introduced into the fuel pool through a conventional single-fuel-pump (dispenser) approach.

While much has been written on the effect of blending the light alcohols with gasoline in this way, the results present significant new findings with regards to the effect of the enthalpy of vaporization of the alcohols in terms of particulate exhaust emissions. Also, in one of the tests, two mid-level blends were tested in a highly-downsized prototype engine, these blends being matched for stoichiometry, enthalpy of vaporization and volumetric energy content. The consequences of this are discussed and the results show that this approach to blend formulation creates fuels which behave in the same manner in a given combustion system; the reasons for this are discussed.

One set of tests using pure methanol alternately with cooled exhaust gas recirculation and with excess air shows the significant increase in thermal efficiency that can be expected as the blend level is increased. The effect on nitrous oxide emissions is shown to be similarly beneficial, this being primarily a result of the enthalpy of vaporization of the alcohol cooling the charge coupled with the lower adiabatic flame temperature of the alcohol. However, whereas it is normally a beneficial characteristic in spark-ignition combustion systems, one disadvantage of a high value of enthalpy of vaporization is shown in another series of tests in that, in admixture with gasoline, it is a driver on flash boiling of the hydrocarbon component in the blend in direct injection combustion systems. In turn this causes the particulate emissions of the engine to increase quite markedly over those for ethanol-gasoline blends at the same stoichiometry. The paper shows for the first time the dichotomy of the potential efficiency improvement with the challenge of particulate control. This effect poses a challenge for the future introduction and use of such high blend rate fuels in engines without particulate filters. Although it must be stated that the overall particulate emissions of the methanol-gasoline blend are lower than for gasoline, the effect is only present at extremely low load, and that there is a likelihood that particulate filters will be adopted in production vehicle anyway, nullifying this issue.
LanguageEnglish
Pages36-56
JournalProceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
Volume232
Issue number1
DOIs
StatusPublished - 1 Jan 2018

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Alcohol fuels
Binary mixtures
Internal combustion engines
Alcohols
Gasoline
Vaporization
Enthalpy
Engines
Particulate emissions
Methanol
Stoichiometry
Ethanol
Adiabatic flame temperature
Fuel pumps
Dispensers
Exhaust gas recirculation
Fuel systems
Direct injection
Electric sparks
Boiling liquids

Cite this

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title = "Alcohol fuels for spark-ignition engines: performance, efficiency and emissions effects at mid to high blend rates for binary mixtures and pure components",
abstract = "The paper evaluates the results of tests performed using mid- and high-level blends of the low-carbon alcohols methanol and ethanol in admixture with gasoline, conducted in a variety of test engines to investigate octane response, efficiency and exhaust emissions, including those for particulate matter. Additionally, pure alcohols are tested in two of the engines, in order to show the maximum response that can be expected in terms of knock limit and efficiency as a result of the beneficial properties of the two alcohols investigated. All of the test work has been conducted with blending of the alcohols and gasoline taking place outside of the combustion system, i.e. the two components are mixed homogeneously before introduction to the fuel system and so the results represent what would happen if the alcohols were introduced into the fuel pool through a conventional single-fuel-pump (dispenser) approach.While much has been written on the effect of blending the light alcohols with gasoline in this way, the results present significant new findings with regards to the effect of the enthalpy of vaporization of the alcohols in terms of particulate exhaust emissions. Also, in one of the tests, two mid-level blends were tested in a highly-downsized prototype engine, these blends being matched for stoichiometry, enthalpy of vaporization and volumetric energy content. The consequences of this are discussed and the results show that this approach to blend formulation creates fuels which behave in the same manner in a given combustion system; the reasons for this are discussed.One set of tests using pure methanol alternately with cooled exhaust gas recirculation and with excess air shows the significant increase in thermal efficiency that can be expected as the blend level is increased. The effect on nitrous oxide emissions is shown to be similarly beneficial, this being primarily a result of the enthalpy of vaporization of the alcohol cooling the charge coupled with the lower adiabatic flame temperature of the alcohol. However, whereas it is normally a beneficial characteristic in spark-ignition combustion systems, one disadvantage of a high value of enthalpy of vaporization is shown in another series of tests in that, in admixture with gasoline, it is a driver on flash boiling of the hydrocarbon component in the blend in direct injection combustion systems. In turn this causes the particulate emissions of the engine to increase quite markedly over those for ethanol-gasoline blends at the same stoichiometry. The paper shows for the first time the dichotomy of the potential efficiency improvement with the challenge of particulate control. This effect poses a challenge for the future introduction and use of such high blend rate fuels in engines without particulate filters. Although it must be stated that the overall particulate emissions of the methanol-gasoline blend are lower than for gasoline, the effect is only present at extremely low load, and that there is a likelihood that particulate filters will be adopted in production vehicle anyway, nullifying this issue.",
author = "James Turner and Andrew Lewis and Sam Akehurst and Christian Brace and S. Verhelst and J. Vancoillie and L. Sileghem and Felix Leach and Edwards, {Peter P.}",
year = "2018",
month = "1",
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language = "English",
volume = "232",
pages = "36--56",
journal = "Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering",
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T1 - Alcohol fuels for spark-ignition engines: performance, efficiency and emissions effects at mid to high blend rates for binary mixtures and pure components

AU - Turner,James

AU - Lewis,Andrew

AU - Akehurst,Sam

AU - Brace,Christian

AU - Verhelst,S.

AU - Vancoillie,J.

AU - Sileghem,L.

AU - Leach,Felix

AU - Edwards,Peter P.

PY - 2018/1/1

Y1 - 2018/1/1

N2 - The paper evaluates the results of tests performed using mid- and high-level blends of the low-carbon alcohols methanol and ethanol in admixture with gasoline, conducted in a variety of test engines to investigate octane response, efficiency and exhaust emissions, including those for particulate matter. Additionally, pure alcohols are tested in two of the engines, in order to show the maximum response that can be expected in terms of knock limit and efficiency as a result of the beneficial properties of the two alcohols investigated. All of the test work has been conducted with blending of the alcohols and gasoline taking place outside of the combustion system, i.e. the two components are mixed homogeneously before introduction to the fuel system and so the results represent what would happen if the alcohols were introduced into the fuel pool through a conventional single-fuel-pump (dispenser) approach.While much has been written on the effect of blending the light alcohols with gasoline in this way, the results present significant new findings with regards to the effect of the enthalpy of vaporization of the alcohols in terms of particulate exhaust emissions. Also, in one of the tests, two mid-level blends were tested in a highly-downsized prototype engine, these blends being matched for stoichiometry, enthalpy of vaporization and volumetric energy content. The consequences of this are discussed and the results show that this approach to blend formulation creates fuels which behave in the same manner in a given combustion system; the reasons for this are discussed.One set of tests using pure methanol alternately with cooled exhaust gas recirculation and with excess air shows the significant increase in thermal efficiency that can be expected as the blend level is increased. The effect on nitrous oxide emissions is shown to be similarly beneficial, this being primarily a result of the enthalpy of vaporization of the alcohol cooling the charge coupled with the lower adiabatic flame temperature of the alcohol. However, whereas it is normally a beneficial characteristic in spark-ignition combustion systems, one disadvantage of a high value of enthalpy of vaporization is shown in another series of tests in that, in admixture with gasoline, it is a driver on flash boiling of the hydrocarbon component in the blend in direct injection combustion systems. In turn this causes the particulate emissions of the engine to increase quite markedly over those for ethanol-gasoline blends at the same stoichiometry. The paper shows for the first time the dichotomy of the potential efficiency improvement with the challenge of particulate control. This effect poses a challenge for the future introduction and use of such high blend rate fuels in engines without particulate filters. Although it must be stated that the overall particulate emissions of the methanol-gasoline blend are lower than for gasoline, the effect is only present at extremely low load, and that there is a likelihood that particulate filters will be adopted in production vehicle anyway, nullifying this issue.

AB - The paper evaluates the results of tests performed using mid- and high-level blends of the low-carbon alcohols methanol and ethanol in admixture with gasoline, conducted in a variety of test engines to investigate octane response, efficiency and exhaust emissions, including those for particulate matter. Additionally, pure alcohols are tested in two of the engines, in order to show the maximum response that can be expected in terms of knock limit and efficiency as a result of the beneficial properties of the two alcohols investigated. All of the test work has been conducted with blending of the alcohols and gasoline taking place outside of the combustion system, i.e. the two components are mixed homogeneously before introduction to the fuel system and so the results represent what would happen if the alcohols were introduced into the fuel pool through a conventional single-fuel-pump (dispenser) approach.While much has been written on the effect of blending the light alcohols with gasoline in this way, the results present significant new findings with regards to the effect of the enthalpy of vaporization of the alcohols in terms of particulate exhaust emissions. Also, in one of the tests, two mid-level blends were tested in a highly-downsized prototype engine, these blends being matched for stoichiometry, enthalpy of vaporization and volumetric energy content. The consequences of this are discussed and the results show that this approach to blend formulation creates fuels which behave in the same manner in a given combustion system; the reasons for this are discussed.One set of tests using pure methanol alternately with cooled exhaust gas recirculation and with excess air shows the significant increase in thermal efficiency that can be expected as the blend level is increased. The effect on nitrous oxide emissions is shown to be similarly beneficial, this being primarily a result of the enthalpy of vaporization of the alcohol cooling the charge coupled with the lower adiabatic flame temperature of the alcohol. However, whereas it is normally a beneficial characteristic in spark-ignition combustion systems, one disadvantage of a high value of enthalpy of vaporization is shown in another series of tests in that, in admixture with gasoline, it is a driver on flash boiling of the hydrocarbon component in the blend in direct injection combustion systems. In turn this causes the particulate emissions of the engine to increase quite markedly over those for ethanol-gasoline blends at the same stoichiometry. The paper shows for the first time the dichotomy of the potential efficiency improvement with the challenge of particulate control. This effect poses a challenge for the future introduction and use of such high blend rate fuels in engines without particulate filters. Although it must be stated that the overall particulate emissions of the methanol-gasoline blend are lower than for gasoline, the effect is only present at extremely low load, and that there is a likelihood that particulate filters will be adopted in production vehicle anyway, nullifying this issue.

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DO - 10.1177/0954407017752832

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JO - Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering

T2 - Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering

JF - Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering

SN - 0954-4070

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