Affordable monsoon rain mitigation measures in the World Heritage site of Moenjodaro, Pakistan

Enrico Fodde, Muhammad Safdar Khan

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The paper provides an overview of environmental monitoring, monsoon
rain deterioration effects, and affordable monitoring measures
implemented in the 52km of exposed walls of the Bronze Age
archaeological site of Moenjodaro (Sindh, Pakistan). The site was
first excavated in 1922 and, after inscription in the UNESCO World
Heritage List in 1980, it became the experimental ground for several
national and international consultants who advised on wide ranging
protection and consolidation methods against monsoon rain attack.
The aim of this paper is to make a review of affordable traditional
mitigation measures in use at the site, and of their effect in terms
of heavy rain defence. More recent mitigation techniques are examined
also, and their effectiveness in terms of heavy rain defence is
discussed. Finally, a case study on the monsoon preparation work
carried out in two areas of Moenjodaro is examined.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)161-173
JournalInternational Journal of Architectural Heritage
Issue number2
Early online date3 Oct 2013
Publication statusPublished - 2017


  • Monsoon deterioration effects
  • fired brick
  • World Heritage site
  • archaeological site
  • conservation


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