Abstract

This paper describes the first aerial additive manufacturing system developed to create and repair civil engineering structures using polymeric materials 3D extrusion-printed by aerial robots. The structural potential of three commercially available expanding polyurethane foams of varying density (LD40, Reprocell 300 and Reprocell 500), and their feasibility for deposition using an autonomous dual-syringe device is described. Test specimens consisting of one and two layers, with horizontal and vertical interfaces, were mechanically tested both parallel and perpendicular to the direction of expansion. LD40 specimens exhibited ductile failure in flexural tests and provided evidence that interfaces between layers were not regions of weaknesses. Hand-mixed specimens of Reprocell 500 possessed compressive strengths comparable with concrete and flexural strengths similar to the lower range of timber, though exhibited brittle failure. There are challenges to be faced with matching the performance of hand-mixed specimens using the autonomous dual-syringe deposition device, primarily concerning the rheological properties of the material following extrusion. However, the device successfully imported and deposited two liquid components, of varying viscosity, and maintained correct mixing ratios. This work has demonstrated the structural and operational feasibility of polyurethane foam as a viable material for extrusion-printing from aerial robots.
LanguageEnglish
Article number1700013
Number of pages12
JournalProceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Construction Materials
Early online date14 Jul 2017
DOIs
StatusE-pub ahead of print - 14 Jul 2017

Fingerprint

3D printers
Extrusion
Syringes
Polymers
Antennas
Polyurethanes
Foams
Robots
Timber
Civil engineering
Bending strength
Compressive strength
Printing
Repair
Concretes
Viscosity
Liquids
Drones
polyurethane foam

Keywords

  • Materials technology
  • resins and plastics
  • Strength and testing of materials

Cite this

@article{87442d47777b4614a45d8e7af6e4ffaf,
title = "Aerial additive building manufacturing: three-dimensional printing of polymer structures using drones",
abstract = "This paper describes the first aerial additive manufacturing system developed to create and repair civil engineering structures using polymeric materials 3D extrusion-printed by aerial robots. The structural potential of three commercially available expanding polyurethane foams of varying density (LD40, Reprocell 300 and Reprocell 500), and their feasibility for deposition using an autonomous dual-syringe device is described. Test specimens consisting of one and two layers, with horizontal and vertical interfaces, were mechanically tested both parallel and perpendicular to the direction of expansion. LD40 specimens exhibited ductile failure in flexural tests and provided evidence that interfaces between layers were not regions of weaknesses. Hand-mixed specimens of Reprocell 500 possessed compressive strengths comparable with concrete and flexural strengths similar to the lower range of timber, though exhibited brittle failure. There are challenges to be faced with matching the performance of hand-mixed specimens using the autonomous dual-syringe deposition device, primarily concerning the rheological properties of the material following extrusion. However, the device successfully imported and deposited two liquid components, of varying viscosity, and maintained correct mixing ratios. This work has demonstrated the structural and operational feasibility of polyurethane foam as a viable material for extrusion-printing from aerial robots.",
keywords = "Materials technology, resins and plastics, Strength and testing of materials",
author = "Barrie Dams and Sina Sareh and Ketao Zhang and Paul Shepherd and Mirko Kovac and Richard Ball",
year = "2017",
month = "7",
day = "14",
doi = "10.1680/jcoma.17.00013",
language = "English",
journal = "Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Construction Materials",
issn = "1747-650X",
publisher = "Thomas Telford (ICE Publishing)",

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AU - Dams,Barrie

AU - Sareh,Sina

AU - Zhang,Ketao

AU - Shepherd,Paul

AU - Kovac,Mirko

AU - Ball,Richard

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N2 - This paper describes the first aerial additive manufacturing system developed to create and repair civil engineering structures using polymeric materials 3D extrusion-printed by aerial robots. The structural potential of three commercially available expanding polyurethane foams of varying density (LD40, Reprocell 300 and Reprocell 500), and their feasibility for deposition using an autonomous dual-syringe device is described. Test specimens consisting of one and two layers, with horizontal and vertical interfaces, were mechanically tested both parallel and perpendicular to the direction of expansion. LD40 specimens exhibited ductile failure in flexural tests and provided evidence that interfaces between layers were not regions of weaknesses. Hand-mixed specimens of Reprocell 500 possessed compressive strengths comparable with concrete and flexural strengths similar to the lower range of timber, though exhibited brittle failure. There are challenges to be faced with matching the performance of hand-mixed specimens using the autonomous dual-syringe deposition device, primarily concerning the rheological properties of the material following extrusion. However, the device successfully imported and deposited two liquid components, of varying viscosity, and maintained correct mixing ratios. This work has demonstrated the structural and operational feasibility of polyurethane foam as a viable material for extrusion-printing from aerial robots.

AB - This paper describes the first aerial additive manufacturing system developed to create and repair civil engineering structures using polymeric materials 3D extrusion-printed by aerial robots. The structural potential of three commercially available expanding polyurethane foams of varying density (LD40, Reprocell 300 and Reprocell 500), and their feasibility for deposition using an autonomous dual-syringe device is described. Test specimens consisting of one and two layers, with horizontal and vertical interfaces, were mechanically tested both parallel and perpendicular to the direction of expansion. LD40 specimens exhibited ductile failure in flexural tests and provided evidence that interfaces between layers were not regions of weaknesses. Hand-mixed specimens of Reprocell 500 possessed compressive strengths comparable with concrete and flexural strengths similar to the lower range of timber, though exhibited brittle failure. There are challenges to be faced with matching the performance of hand-mixed specimens using the autonomous dual-syringe deposition device, primarily concerning the rheological properties of the material following extrusion. However, the device successfully imported and deposited two liquid components, of varying viscosity, and maintained correct mixing ratios. This work has demonstrated the structural and operational feasibility of polyurethane foam as a viable material for extrusion-printing from aerial robots.

KW - Materials technology

KW - resins and plastics

KW - Strength and testing of materials

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