Objective To assess whether adolescent–parent agreement on treatment goals as part of an Internet-delivered cognitive-behavioral pain intervention was associated with adolescent outcomes. Methods 122 adolescent–parent dyads selected two treatment goals. Pain intensity and pain-related disability were assessed at pre-treatment, post-treatment, and 6- and 12-month follow-ups. We compared dyads who had goal agreement versus no agreement. Results 74 dyads (61%) agreed on one or more treatment goals, most commonly going to school, sports, and sleep. In dyads who chose the same goal, regardless of the content, adolescents had lower pain intensity post-treatment and at follow-up. When goals were categorized by domain, in dyads who agreed on physically active goals, adolescents were more likely to report lower pain intensity compared with other groups. Agreement of goals was not associated with changes in pain-related disability. Conclusions Agreement on treatment goals may be an important treatment process to maximize outcomes in self-management therapies.