Adaptive Façades: Review of Designs, Performance Evaluation, and Control Systems

Xi Zhang, Hao Zhang, Yuyan Wang, Xuepeng Shi

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

7 Citations (SciVal)


Adaptive building envelope systems can manage energy and mass transformation between indoor and outdoor environments, which contributes to the achievement of environmental benefits via reducing energy consumption and greenhouse gas emission while maintaining human comfort and well-being. However, the market penetration of adaptive façades (AFs) is far from sufficient, even though their capabilities have been recognized in research. Hence, this paper explores the factors hindering the growth of the market share of AFs, based on an exhaustive examination of designs, evaluation criteria and tools, and control systems. Insufficient commercial technology, inaccurate and incomplete performance data, and inconsistent evaluation criteria are demonstrated to be the factors
that have hindered the widespread utilization of AFs thus far. Future research tendencies, including reducing costs, retrofitting existing building façades, developing building performance measurement tools, and building consensus evaluation criteria that favor the wide applicability of such façades in
actual practice are identified.
Original languageEnglish
Article numberbuildings12122112
Pages (from-to)1-28
Number of pages28
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding: This research received no external funding.
Data Availability Statement: Not applicable.


  • Adaptive façade
  • Evaluation
  • Control


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